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50.   Other Translators in the Period of Disunity


  1. Other Translators in the Period of Disunity

In Chinese history, there had the Period of Disunity or called the South and North Dynasties (317 – 589 A.D.)

50.1 Chih-chien ( 支謙 ) (~200 A.D)

    • from Kushan (月支國) to China during Dong-wu Dynasty (東吳) in the Period of Disunity
    • translated 88 scriptures for both Hinayana and Mahayana, including
    • Atthakavagga, i.e. Meaningful Chapters (義品經) 2 fascicles in 223-253 A.D.
    • Vimalakirti Nirdesha Sutra, i.e. Vimalakirti Sutra ( 維摩詰經) 2 fascicles between 223 and 253 A.D.
    • Matangi Sutra (摩登伽經) 2 fascicles

 

50.2 Sanghapala / Kang Seng-hui ( 康僧會 ) (~250 A.D.)

    • the eldest son of the Prime Minister of Soghdiana/Samarkand (康居國)
    • immigrated to China during Dong-wu Dynasty (東吳) in the Period of Disunity
    • translated scriptures, included Shatparamita Sangraha Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Collection of the Practices of the Six Perfections (六度集經) 8 fascicles between 251-280 A.D.

 

50.3 Dharmaraksha / Chu Fa-hu ( 竺法謢 ) (200-300 A.D.)

    • from India to China in the Period of Disunity
    • ordained in 8 years old, very talented in reading and writing, proficient in 36 languages when he travelled
    • known as Tun-huang Bodhisattva (敦煌菩薩)
    • with a group of 12 translators, he translated 175 scriptures of 354 fascicles, including:
      • Avatamsaka Sutra (華嚴經)
      • Agama Sutra (阿含經)
      • Vaipulya Sutras (方等經)
      • Lotus Sutras(法華經)
      • Nirvana Sutra(涅槃經)
      • Panchavimshati Sahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (光讚般若波羅蜜經) 10 fascicles in 286 A.D.
      • Lalitavistara, i.e. Detailed Narration of the Sport of the Buddha (普曜經) 8 fascicles in 308 A.D
      • Ullambana Sutra (孟蘭盆經) 1 fascicle.

 

50.4 Gautama Sanghadeva ( 瞿曇僧伽提婆 ) (~300 A.D.)

    • from Kabul
    • translated 7 scriptures during 383-398 A.D. including
      • Madhyama-agama i.e. Middle Length Sayings (中阿含經) 60 fascicles in 397-398 A.D.
      • Ekottara-agama i.e. Gradual Sayings (增一阿含經), 51 fascicles 397-398 A.D.
      • Treatise of the Heart of Abhidharma (阿毗曇心論)

 

50.5 Buddhabhadra ( 佛陀跋陀羅 ) (394-468 A.D.)

    • from Central India
    • invited by Master Hui-yen (慧遠) to stay at Mount Lu (盧山) to translate sutras
    • translated 13 scriptures of 125 fascicles including
      • Avatamsaka Sutra (華嚴經) in 60 fascicles in 418-421 A.D.
      • Mahasanghika Vinaya (摩訶僧衹律) in 40 fascicles, in 416-418 A.D. jointly with Fa-Hsien
      • Yogacarabhum Sutra, i.e. Sutra on the Stages of Yoga Practice (修行道地經) 又名「達摩多羅禪經」) 2 fascicles in 398-421 A.D.
      • Mahaparinirvana-suta, i.e. Sutra of the Great Decease (大乘涅槃經), 6 fascicles in 416-418 jointly with Fa-hsien
      • Tathagatagarbha Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Tathagata Treasury (大方等如來藏經) 1 fascicle in 420 A.D.

 

50.6 Dharmanandi ( 曇摩難提 / 法喜 )

    • translation works including
      • Madhyama-agama, i.e. Middle Length Sayings (中阿含經) in 59 fascicles
      • Ekottara-agama, i.e. Gradual Sayings (增一阿含經) in 50 fascicles
    • the above translated sutras are not extant.

 

50.7 Buddhayashas ( 佛陀耶舍 )

    • teacher/advisor of Kumarajiva in Buddhism
    • welcomed by the Emperor Yao Hsing (姚興) of Later Chin Dynasty (後秦) when arrived in Chang-an (長安), China
    • translation works including
      • Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, i.e. Four-Category Vinaya (四分律) 60 fascicles in 410-412 A.D.
      • Dirgha-agama i.e. Long Sayings (長阿含經) 22 fascicles in 412-413 A.D.; jointly with Chu Fo-nien (竺佛念)

 

50.8 Fa Hsien ( 法顯 ) (~ -422 A.D.)

    • regarded as the first important Chinese pilgrim
    • left China to India in 399 A.D. seeking the original text of Vinaya and other Buddhist scriptures
    • returned to China after 15 years bringing many valuable Buddhist scriptures for both Hinayana and Mahayana
    • he wrote "Records of the Buddhist Kingdoms" (佛國記), a documentary to record his travels over 30 countries in India, Sri Lanka, etc.
    • translation works including
      • Mahaparinirvana Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Great Decease (大般泥洹經) 6 fascicles in 416-418 A.D., jointly with Buddhabhdra
      • Mahasanghika Vinaya, i.e. Vinaya of the Mahasanghika School (摩訶僧衹律) 40 fascicles in 416-418 A.D., together with Buddhabhadra in translation.
      • 僧衹比丘戒本一卷
      • 僧衹尼戒本一卷

 

50.9 Chu Fo-nein ( 竺佛念 )

    • he was the companion of Buddhayashas in translation works
    • there were 12 scriptures in 74 fascicles in his own translation works, including
      • 十住斷續經
      • Dirgha-agama, i.e. Long Sayings (長阿含經) 22 fascicles in 412-413 A.D., jointly with Buddhayashas

 

50.10 Dharmakshema ( 曇無讖 / 法豐 ) (385-433 A.D.)

    • from Central India to China during Bei-liang Dynasty (北涼) during the Period of Disunity
    • very good in debating
    • translated 19 scriptures in 131 fascicles including
      • Mahaparinirvana Sutra i.e. Sutra of the Great Decease (大般涅槃經) 40 fascicles in 414-421 A.D., usually taken as the northern version.
      • Mahasamnipata Sutra, i.e. Great Collection of Sutras (大方等大集經) 60 fascicles in 414-426 A.D.
      • Buddhacarita (佛所行讚) 5 fascicles
      • Bodhisattva Bhumi, i.e. Sutra of a Bodhisattva’s Spiritual States (菩薩地持經) 10 fascicles between 414 and 426 A.D.
      • Suvanapabhasa Sutra, i.e. Golden Light Sutra (金光明經) 4 fascicles in 414-426 A.D.
      • Upasakasila Sutra (優婆塞戒經) 7 fascicles.

 

50.11 Gunabhadra ( 求那跋陀羅 / 功德賢 ) (394 - 468 A.D.)

    • born in Central India
    • moved from Ceylon to China during the Period of Disunity.
    • Translated 52 scriptures in 134 fascicles including:
      • Samyukta-agama, i.e. Kindred Sayings (雜阿含經), 50 fascicles in 435-443 A.D.
      • Lankaratara Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Appearance of the Good Doctrine in (Sri) Lanka (楞伽經), 4 fascicles in 443 A.D.
      • Samdhinirmochana Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Continuation Stream of Emancipation (相續解脫經), 1 fascicle in 420 A.D.
      • Shrimaladevi Simhanada Sutra, i.e. Queen of Shrimala Sutra (the Lion’s Roar of Queen Shrimala) (勝鬘經) 1 fascicle in 436 A.D.

 

50.12 Buddhajiva ( 佛陀什/覺壽 ) (~ 423 A.D.)

    • specialized in Vinaya
    • translated works including
      • Mahishasaka Vinaya, i.e. Five-category Vinaya (五分律) 30 fascicles

 

50.13 Paramartha ( 波羅未陀 / 真諦三藏 ) (499-569 A.D.)

    • from Western India to Southern China during the Period of Disunity
    • said to be one of the greatest translators comparable to Kumarajiva. However his supportive logistics were not so favourable.
    • translated over 50 scriptures in over 120 fascicles including:
      • Suvarnaprabhasa Sutra i.e. Golden Light Sutra (金光明經), 7 fascicles in 552 A.D.
      • Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra i.e. Diamond Sutra (金剛經), 1 fascicle in 558-559 A.D.
      • Mahayana Shraddhotpada Shastra, i.e. Treatise on the Awaking of Faith in Mahayana (大乘起信論), 1 fascicle in 553 A.D.
      • Mahayanasamgraha i.e. Comprehensive Treatise on Mahayana Buddhism (攝大乘論), 3 fascicles in 563 A.D.
      • Treatise on the Buddha’s nature (佛性論), 4 fascicle in 557-569 A.D.
      • Saptadasha Bhumika Shastra, i.e. Treatise on the Seventeen Stages of Spiritual Development (十七地論) 5 fascicles
      • Abhidharama Kosha Shastra i.e. Abhidharma Storehouse Treatise (俱舍論)
      • Samdhinirmochana Sutra i.e. Sutra of Emancipation (解節經) between 557-589 A.D.
      • Saddharmapundarikopadesa (妙法蓮華經優婆提舍) 2 fascicles.
      • Sutra on Neither Increasing nor Deceasing (不增不減經) 1 fascicle in 525 A.D.

 

50.14 Bodhiruchi ( 菩提留支 ) (~ 5th century)

    • from Northern India to China
    • leader of translation centre over 700 monks
    • translated 30 scriptures in 101 fascicles in 30 years including
      • Dashabhumika Sutra Shastra, i.e. Treatise on the Sutra of the Ten Stages (十地經論) 12 fascicles in 508-535 A.D.
      • Lankavatara Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Appearance of the Good Doctrine in (Sri) Lanka (楞伽經) 10 fascicles in 513 A.D.

 

50.15 Prajnaruchi ( 般若流支 / 智希 )

    • Braham in Central India moved to China
    • Translated 18 scriptures in 92 fascicles
      • Saddharmasmrity Upasthana Sutra, i.e. Sutra of Stability in Contemplation of the True Law (正法念處經), 70 fascicles in 538-543 A.D.