In the last issue we presented some Lohan paintings. This time we would like to present some images of Lohan statues.

Lohan ( ù~ ) is the Chinese term for Arhat in Sanskrit. In Buddhism,  Arhat has three meanings:

  1. Worthy of Offerings ( ) - they are worthy of the offerings of gods and people.
  2. Killer of thieves ( ) - thieves refer to the ignorance ( L ), affliction ( дo ) and the six sense organs ( ), namely, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind. What the thieves take away from us is our unsurpassed true treasures, which refer to our self-nature, Buddha nature and reality.
  3. Not born ( L ) - Arhat is not subject to production (birth) and extinction (death). An arhat has attained the state of Patience of the Non-production of Dharmas ( Lͪk ), so does not have to undergo the cycle of birth and death again.

The names of the sixteen Lohans are as follows:

  1. Pindolabharadvaja ( ù[okG / YcùZ ) - he is regarded as the chief of the sixteen, who was firstly instructed by Shakyamuni Buddha to stay in this world forever to help and save the sentient beings.
  2. Kanakavatsa ( {խ{ )
  3. Kanakabharadvaja ( {խ{[kG )
  4. Suvinda ( ĬW )
  5. Nakula ( նZù )
  6. Bhadra ( [ù )
  7. Karika ( {z{ )
  8. Vajrapudra ( Gùhù )
  9. Svaka ( խ{ )
  10. Panthaka ( b{ )
  11. Rahula ( o|ù / ù / ùù )
  12. Nagasena ( R )
  13. Ingata ( ] )
  14. Vanavasin ( 墨C )
  15. Ajita ( ¦h )
  16. Suddhipanthaka or Cudapanthaka ( `b{ / PQn )

The statues covered in this issue range from Sung to Ming Dynasties. Although early Buddhist statues were introduced to China from India during the Han Dynasties, all the Lohan statues here are of typical Chinese look and based on the Chinese traditions. The Lohan statues depict very diversified personalities, body postures and facial features . They can reflect some of the daily lives of China in those days. Many of them are in fact combinations of both Buddhism and Chinese legends. It is fair to say that such artistic forms are more secular than religious.