- see charity.
- Sanskrit word, literally means boundless light and boundless life. He is the Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure Land), in which all beings enjoy unbounded happiness. Amitabha has forty-eight great vows to establish and adorn his Pure Land. People also recite or call upon his name by the time of dying will be born in the Land of Ultimate Bliss with the reception by Amitabha. Amitabha is one of the most popular and well-known Buddha in China.
- Sanskrit word for the Bodhisattva who Hears the Sounds of the World. He rescues all beings by hearing their voices of suffering and cries for help. In Chinese, he is called Guan Shr Yin or Guan Yin Bodhisattva. As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the greatest compassion and mercy.
Guan Yin is one of the triad of Amitabha Buddha, represented on his left, and being the future Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure Land) after Amitabha Buddha.
Guan Yin can transform into many different forms in order to cross over to the beings.
Guan Yin is one of the most popular Bodhisattva in China.
- Sanskrit word, the Buddha of Medicine, who quells all diseases and lengthens life. His is the Buddha in the Pure Land of the Paradise of the East.
- a Future Buddha who is a being destined to Buddhahood. Bodhi means Enlightenment and Sattva means Sentient and Conscious. Therefore Bodhisattva refers to the sentient being of or for the great wisdom and enlightenment. Bodhisattva's vow/aim is the pursuit of Buddhahood and the salvation of others and of all. He seeks enlightenment to enlighten others. He will sacrifice himself to save the others. He is devoid of egoism and devoted to help the others. The way and discipline of Bodhisattva is to benefit the self and the others, leading to Buddhahood.
- the highest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They served Brahma, his offering, the keepers of the Vedas, i.e. priestly.
- means "the Enlightened One" or "the Awakened One".
- also called Zen; see Contemplation and Meditation.
- or almsgiving, the first Paramitas. There are three kinds of charity in terms of goods, doctrines (Dharma) and courage (fearlessness). Out of the three, the merits and virtues of doctrines charity is the most surpassing. Charity done for no reward here and hereafter is called pure or unsullied, while the sullied charity is done for the purpose of personal benefits. In Buddhism, the merits and virtues of pure charity is the best.
- abstract contemplation. There are four levels through which the mind frees itself from all subjects and objective hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and annihilation of thought, perception, and will. See also Meditation.
- Sanskrit word, means law, truth, anything Buddhist. It is used in the sense of all things, visible or invisible.
- see Vigor.
- see Vigor.
- Eight Divisions of Gods and Dragons
- Devas (gods), Nagas (Dragons) and others of eight divisions (classes): deva, nagas, yakas, ganharvas, asuras, gaudas, kinaras, mahoragas.
- Eightfold Path
- the eight right ways for the Arhat leading to Nirvana. The eight are:
(1) Right View
(2) Right Thought
(3) Right Speech
(4) Right Action
(5) Right Livelihood
(6) Right Effort
(7) Right Remembrance
(8) Right Concentration
- see Patience.
- see Vigor.
- Five Offences
- The five rebellious acts or deadly sins:
(3) killing an arhat
(4) shedding the blood of a Buddha
(5) destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity.
- Fourfold Assembly
- Or the Four Varga (groups) are bhiksu, bhiksuni,
upasaka and upasika, i.e. monks, nuns, male and
- Four Great Bodhisattva
- They represent the four major characters of Bodhisattva
- Manjusri - Universal Great Wisdom Bodhisattva
- Samantabhadra - Universal Worthy Great Conduct Bodhisattva
- Ksitigarbha - Earth TReasury King Great Vow Bodhisattva
- Avalokitesvara - Guan Shr Yin Great Compassion Bodhisattva
- Four Noble Truths
- It is the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni
The first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two to the life outside and beyond this world.
- Doctrine of Suffering - suffering is a necessary attribute of sentient existence (Effect of Suffering)
- Doctrine of Accumulation - accumulation of suffering is caused by passions (Cause of Suffering)
- Doctrine of Extinction - extinction of passion (Effect of Happiness)
- Doctrine of Path - Path leading to the extinction of passion (Cause of Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path.
The Four Noble Truths were first preached to Shakyamuni's five former ascetic companions.
- see charity.
- the second of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling castes.
- Law of Dependent Organization
- it states that all phenomenon arise depending upon a number of casual factors. In other word, it exists in condition that the other exist; it has in condition that others have; it extinguishes in condition that others extinguish; it has not in condition that others have not. For existence, there are twelve links in the chain:
- Ignorance is the condition for karmic activity;
- Karmic activity is the condition for consciousness;
- Consciousness is the condition for the name and form;
- Name and form is the condition for the six sense organs;
- Six sense organs are the condition for contact;
- Contact is the condition for feeling;
- Feeling is the condition for emotional love/craving;
- Emotional love/craving is the condition for grasping;
- Grasping is the condition for existing;
- Existing is the condition for birth;
- Birth is the condition for old age and death;
- Old age and death is the condition for ignorance; and so on.
- the mother of Shakaymuni. She was the Koliyan Princess and married to Suddhodana.
- Sanskrit word, literally means friendly and benevolent. He will be the next Buddha in our world. He is now preaching in Tusita Heaven. He is usually represented as the fat laughing Buddha.
- the fifth Paramitas. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. See also Contemplation.
- the second Paramitas, to take precepts and to keep the moral laws.
- Nine Realms
- The nine realms of error, or subjection to passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm. The nine realms are
- the hell,
- the hungry ghost,
- the animal,
- the man,
- the Asura,
- the gods,
- the Arhat (sound hearer),
- the Arhat (enlightened to condition), and
- the Bodhisattra.
- Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers
- Or Nine Grades, Classes of Lotus Flowers, i.e. upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, upper medium, middle medium, lower medium, upper inferior, middle inferior and lower inferior, which represent ninefold future life into Pure Land. The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land,
corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitabha, the consequent aeons that are required to approach Amitabha, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.
- completely liberated from existence, absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence. Nirvana is not death, but is rebirth.
- It means to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore which is the Nirvana.
The Six Paramitas or means of so doings are
(1) dana - charity/giving
(2) sila - moral/conduct/taking precepts
(3) ksanti - patience
(4) virya - vigor/devotion/energy
(5) dhyana - contemplation/meditation
(6) prajna - wisdom.
The Ten Paramitas are the above plus
(7) upaya - use of expedient or proper means
(8) pranidhana - vow of bodhi and helpfulness
(9) bala - strength
Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of
Each of the ten is divided into ordinary, superior and unlimited perfection, making up to thirty in total.
- kindness/universal love and
- endurance, the third Paramitas. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, both in mundane and spiritual things. Patience refers to bearing insult and distress without resentment.
- Sanskrit word, see wisdom.
- Pure Land
- generally refers to the Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitabha. Also known as the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Other Buddhas have their own Pure Lands. The Pure-Land Sect whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitabha; it is the popular cult in China and Japan.
- Right Action
- the fourth of the Eightfold Path; respect for life (do not kill), property (do not steal) and personal relationship (no sexual misconduct) so as to purify one's mind and body.
- Right Concentration
- right abstraction, the eighth of the Eightfold Path; meditation, focusing the mind without distraction, preparing the mind to attain wisdom.
- Right Effort
- right zeal or progress, unintermitting perseverance, suppressing the rising of evil states and stimulating good states, and to perfect those which have come to beings.
- Right Livelihood
- the fifth of the Eightfold Path; right life, abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. Five kinds of livelihood are discouraged : trading in animals for slaughter, dealing in weapons, dealing in slaves, dealing in poison and dealing in intoxicants.
- Right Remembrance
- right memory, right mindfulness; the seventh of the Eightfold Path, avoiding distracted and clouded state of mind, awareness and self-possessed.
- Right Speech
- the third of Eightfold Path, abstaining from lying, slander/back biting, abuse/harsh words and idle talk.
- Right Thought
- right thought and intent; avoiding desire and ill-will; the second of the Eightfold Path.
- Right Understanding
- see Right View.
- Right View
- understanding the Four Noble Truths; the first of the Eightfold Path.
- Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation.
- Siddhartha Goutama
- the Sanskrit word of Siddhartha, the name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name means "wish fulfilled".
- Six Paramitas
- see Paramitas.
- Six Periods of Day and Night
- Six periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning, noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn.
- the founder of Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was called Siddhartha Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the called Shakyamuni. The word means "capability and kindness".
- Sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
- the highest heaven of the four "sphere of no-thing".
- Sphere of no-thing
- the heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of the mind in contemplation, being four in number of which the "sphere of neither-perception-nor-nonperception" is the highest.
- Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.
- the lowest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and serfs.
- Taking Precepts
- see Morality.
- Ten Directions
- the ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir and zenith. There is a Buddha in each direction.
- Ten Paramitas
- see Paramitas.
- Three Enlightenments
- the three kinds of Enlightenment
1. Enlightenment for self
2. Enlightenment for others
3. Perfect enlightenment and accomplishment
The first is Arhat. The second is Bodhisattva. When all the three have been attained, the being becomes a Buddha.
- Three Jewels
- Or the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.
- Three Roots
- The three (evil) roots, i.e. desire, hate and stupidity. Another group is the three grades of good "roots" or abilities, i.e. superior, medium and inferior.
- the third of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.
- Vast and Long Tongue
- one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus Sutra.
- the fourth Paramitas, pure and unadulterated progress, i.e. zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the evil.
- the highest of Paramitas; the virtue of wisdom as the principal means of attaining Nirvana. It connotes a knowledge of the illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice and heresy.
- the wife of Siddhartha Goutama.
- see Vigor.
- also called Chan; see Contemplation and Meditation.