- Fa Chang He was an eminent Ch'an master at Mount Ta Mei ( 大梅 ) in China. He was the successor of Ma Tsu ( 馬祖 ) and the teacher of Tien Lung ( 天龍 ). He died at the age of 88 in the 8th century.
- Fa Hsien (~422 A.D.) Fa Hsien is regarded as the first important Chinese pilgrim, who left China to India in 399 A.D. seeking the original text of Vinaya and other Buddhist scriptures. He returned to China after 15 years, bringing many valuable Buddhist scriptures for both Hinayana and Mahayana buddhism.
He wrote "Records of the Buddhist Kingdoms" (佛國記), a documentary to record his travels over 30 countries in India, Sri Lanka, etc. His translation works include:
- Mahaparinirvana Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Great Decease (大般泥洹經) 6 fascicles in 416-418 A.D., jointly with Buddhabhdra
- Mahasanghika Vinaya, i.e. Vinaya of the Mahasanghika School (摩訶僧衹律) 40 fascicles in 416-418 A.D., together with Buddhabhadra in translation
- Fa Hua The sixth patriarch of Tien Tai sect.
- Fa Kuang A Ch'an master and friend of Han Shan ( 寒山 ) in the 6th century.
- Fa Yun Fa Yun (A.D. 467-529) was a great Dharma master of the Satyasiddhi School, also a scholar of the
Nirvana School. He wrote a commentary on Lotus Sutra, which is generally
accepted by Japanese Buddhism later.
- Fa-hsiang Chinese pronunciation when the Sanskrit word Dharmalasksana is translated in Chinese, which means the characteristics of Dharmas. It is one of the Chinese Mahayana schools established by Hsuan-tsang ( 玄奘 )(596-682 AD) and his disciple Kuei-chi ( 窺基 ) (632-682 AD). It is based on the writings of the two great masters Asanga and Vasubandhu in the Indian Yogacara tradition. The main text of the school is the Treatise of Establishment of Mere Consciousness, written by Hsuan-tsang. The treatise is said to be based on Vasubandhu’s Thirty Verses (Trimsika). The main doctrine of this school is that all phenomena of existence are simply the creation of mind, i.e. mere consciousness. That is why the other name of Fa-hsiang school is Wei-shih ( 唯識 ), which is the Chinease pronunciation of mere consciousness. The school classifies the Dharma into 100 kinds, under 5 different categories:
- Consciousness (Vijnana)
- Mental factors (Cetasika)
- form (Rupa)
- Dharmas that are independent of consciousness
- Unconditioned Dharmas (Asamskrta)
- Field of Blessings Fields of blessings refer figuratively to the meritorious deeds one does before the Triple Jewel (the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha). Also, the robes worn by members of the Sangha are sewn in patches, which resemble fields. By revering and making offerings to the Sangha, one "plants" seeds of merit and virtue in a place where they will certainly "ripen" and bear blessed fruit.
- The Fifth Council It was held at Prayaga in Central India in 634 A.D. under the patronage of Siladitya. At the council, the doctrines of the Hinayana were condemned. It was recognized by Mahayana only.
- Fifty-two Positions The fifty two positions of Bodhisattva in the process of becoming a Buddha. Actually the 52nd stage is the stage of Buddhahood. They are adopted by Tien-tai school, i.e.
Ten Faith (十信)
Ten Dwelling (十位)
Ten Behavioral Activities (十行)
Ten Transferences (十迴向)
Ten Stages (十地)
plus, Samyak-sambodhi, i.e. Absolute Universal Enlightenment (等覺)
plus, Wonderful Enlightenment (妙覺), i.e. self-enlightenment to enlighten others.
- First Council Also known as 500 Council, Theravada Council", The First
Compilation, etc. The assembly of 500 leading Bhikhus gathered for 3 months after the
Buddha's death to compile the Buddhist sutras. It was held at Cave of the Seven Leaves near Rajagaha.
In the assembly, Ananda recited the
Sutta-pitaka, Upali recited the Rules of Disciplines of the Order, i.e.,
Vinaya-pitaka, and Kassapa recited the Abhidhamma. Thus, the Tripitaka was adopted as a unity of
doctrines and opinions within the religious order, and also an orthodox
teaching for the Buddhists to follow.
- Five Basic Afflications The five fundamental conditions of the passions and delusions:
- wrong view, which are common to the Trailokya
- clinging or attachment in the Desire
- clinging or attachment in the Form Realm
- clinging or attachment in the Formless
- the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in Trailokya, which is the root-cause of all
- Five Bhikshus The first five of Buddha's converts:
|in Pali (P)
||in Sanskrit (S)
They followed Shakyamuni to practice
asceticism, but left him when he abandoned such practices. Later, when
Shakyamuni attained Buddhahood, his first sermon was preached in Deer Park to these men, who became his
- Five Categories of Dharmas In Lankavatara Sutra, all Dharmas are classified into five categories:
- Form ( 相 ) -- all matters, whether sentient or non-sentient, has different forms, shapes, states, marks, or the like.
- Name ( 名 ) --A name is given to each Dharma in accordance with its form, functions, characteristic, etc.
- Differentiation ( 分別 ) -- The relative standard for big or small, good or bad, etc. is established for our reference, differentiation, and recognition.
- Right Wisdom ( 正智 ) -- It refers to the wisdom of the mental functions with non-outflow mind/consciousness ( 無漏心 ). All false forms and names of Dharmas are regarded as provisional and impermanent. It is also the wisdom that contemplates the ultimate truth -- Middle Path.
- Thusness ( 如如 ) -- the state of mind attained by Right Wisdom. As the mind is in the state of Nirvana, not even one single Dharma is attained. This is so called Thusness, which is the true nature of Dharma, the true noumenon, or the Absolute.
The first three are Conditioned Dharmas ( 有為法 ), while the last two are Unconditioned Dharmas ( 無為法 ).
- Five Categories of Untranslated Terms Chinese T"ang Dynasty Master of the Tripitaka Hsuan-Tsang established five
categories of words which should be left untranslated
- the esoteric
- words having multiple meanings
- words for things not existing in China
- words not translated in accord with already established precedent
- words left untranslated in order to give rise to wholesomeness and respect
- Five Celestial Buddhas They are:
- Vairocana 大日如來
- Aksobhya 阿閃佛
- Ratnasambhava 寶生佛
- Amitabha 阿彌陀佛
- Amoghasiddi 不空成就如來
They represent the Buddha in the center, east, south, west and north respectively.
- Five Commandments See Five Precepts.
- Five Components of Human Body They are: Form, Perception, Consciousness, Action and Knowledge, the first is said to be physical and the other four are mental qualities. See also Five Skandhas.
- Five Desires Or Five Sensual Pleasures.
- Desires connected with the five senses ,i.e. form, sound, aroma (scent), taste and touch.
- Also refers to money, sex, fame, eating and sleeping.
- Five Dharmakaya The five attributes of the Dharmakaya, which is the spiritual body of sentient being. They are:
- Precepts (戒), explained by exemption from all matters (超色陰)
- Tranquility (定), explained by exemption from all sensations (超受陰)
- Wisdom (慧), explained by exemption from perception (超想陰)
- Emancipation (解脫), explained by exemption from all moral activities (超行陰)
- Knowledge and view (知見), explained by exemption from consciousness (超識陰).
- Five Eyes There are five kinds of eyes or vision
- human eye - it is our flesh eye, an organ to see an
object with limitation, for instance, in darkness, with obstruction.
- devine eye - it can see in darkness and in distance,
attainable by men in dhyana (concentration/meditation).
- wisdom eye - the eye of Arhat and Two
Vehicles i.e. the sound-hearers (Sravaka) and the Enlightened to Conditions
(Praetyka-Buddha). It can see the false
and empty nature of all phenomena.
- dharma eye - the eye of Bodhisattva. It can see all the dharmas in the world and beyond the world.
- buddha eye - the eye of Buddha or omniscience. It can see all that
four previous eyes can see.
- Five Forms of Decaying When the devas are dying, there are five symptoms:
1. the flowers around the crown
2. the clothes being dirty
3. having unpleasant smell in the body
4. sweating in armpit
5. Being unhappy in seat
- Five Kinds of A Hundred Dharmas According to the doctrines of Fa-hsiang sect, there are five kinds of Dharmas, which is further subdivided into one hundred Dharmas. The five kinds are:
- Mind/Consciousness (Citta/Vijnana in Sanskrit) ( 心法 ) -- 8 Dharmas
- Concomitant Mental Faculties (Caitasika or Citta-samprayukta-sanskara in Sanskrit) ( 心所法 ) -- 51 Dharmas
- Form (Rupa in Sanskrit) ( 色法 ) --11 Dharmas
- Dharmas neither form nor mental functions (Citta-viprayukta-sanskara in Sanskrit) ( 心不相應法 ) -- 24 Dharmas
- Unconditioned Dharmas (Asamkrta) (無為法 ) - 6 Dharmas
The first four are Conditioned Dharmas, while the last one is Unconditioned Dharma.
- Five Klesa Also written as Pantcha Klesa. Sanskrit word literally means five dull messengers (五鈍使) or five serious hindrances (五重滯). They are:
- Greed (貪)
- Anger (瞋)
- Stupidity (癡)
- Irrogance (慢)
- Suspicousness (疑).
The virtues that overcome the five Klesa are called Five Silas, or Pantcha Silas, which literally means five sharp messengers (五利使).
- Five Messengers They are five messengers of Manjusri:
- Five Offences The five rebellious acts or deadly sins:
(1) parricide, i.e., killing father
(2) matricide, i.e., killing mother
(3) killing an arhat
(4) shedding the blood of a Buddha
(5) destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity.
- Five Passions See Five Desires.
- Five Powers Pancabalani in Sanskrit.
The five powers that strengthen us in cultivating the Buddhist way:
- Power of faith, i.e. Sraddhabala in Sanskrit 信力
- Power of Zeal, i.e. Viryabala in Sanskrit 精進力
- Power of Thoughtfulness, i.e. Smrtibala in Sanskrit, 念力
- Power of Concentration, i.e. Samadhibala in Sanskrit, 定力
- Power of Wisdom, i.e. Prajnabala in Sanskrit 慧力
- Five Precepts Or Five Commandments for layman
(1) No killing
(2) No stealing
(3) No sexual misconduct/adultery
(4) No lying
(5) No intoxicant
It is essential for the rebirth in human realms.
- Five Skandhas Or Five Aggregates, that is, the five components of an intelligent beings,
or psychological analysis of the mind:
- Matter or Form (rupa) - the physical form responded to the five organs of
senses, i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue and body
- Sensation or Feeling (vedana) - the feeling in reception of physical
things by the senses through the mind
- Recognition or Conception (sanjna) - the functioning of mind in
distinguishing and formulating the concept
- Volition or Mental Formation (samskara) - habitual action, i.e., a
conditioned response to the object of experience, whether it is good or
evil, you like or dislike
- Consciousness (vijnana) - the mental faculty in regard to perception,
cognition and experience
- Five Vehicles Pancayana in Sanskrit. The Five Vehicles conveying the karma-reward
which differs according to the vehicle:
- Human Vehicle - rebirth among human conveyed by observing the Five Commandments (Five
- Deva Vehicle - among the devas by the Ten
Forms of Good Actions (Ten
- "Sound-Hearing" Arhat - among the
sravakas by the Four Noble Truths
- "Enlightened by Conditions" Arhat - among
the pratyeka-buddhas by the Twelve
- Bodhisattva - among the Bodhisattvas
by the Six Paramita
- Five Vidya Also written as Pantcha Vidya. Vidya is a Sanskrit word which means luminary (明). It refers to knowledge. There are text books covering the following five areas:
- Sabda (聲明) - illustration on sound
- Silpasthana (巧明) - illustration on mechanic and mathematics
- Tchikitsa (醫方明) - illustration on medicine
- Hetu (因明) - illustration on logic
- Adhyatma (內明) - illustration on esoterism
- Five Wisdoms
- Wisdom of the Embodied Nature of Dharma Realm 法界體性智
- derived from amala-vijanana, i.e. pure consciousness (or mind).
- Wisdom of the Great Round Mirror 大圓鏡智
- derived from alaya-vijanana, (8th consciousness) reflecting
- Wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally 平等性智
- derived from manovijanana (7th consciousness).
- Wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt
- destruction 妙觀察智
- derived from the mind consciousness (6th consciousness).
- Wisdom of perfecting the double work of self welfare and the welfare of
- derived from the five senses (1st to 5th consciousness).
- The Fivefold Practice in Mere Consciousness There are five levels of contemplation for the cultivation and practice in Fa-hsiang sect.
- To sever the unreal and keep the real ( 遣虛存實 ) -- It refers to the Threefold Nature of Dharmas. We should sever the Dharmas of sole imagination, leaving the Dharmas of dependence upon others and the Dharmas of ultimate and perfect reality. With respect to relativity of existence and emptiness, emptiness is severed and existence is kept.
- To renounce the impure and retain the pure ( 捨濫留純 ) -- We should renounce the external defiled objects and phenomena, and retain in the state of pureness in our internal mind. With respect to the relativity of mind and object/phenomena, the object/phenomena is renounced and the mind is retained.
- To follow the 'branches' and proceed to the 'main' ( 攝末歸本 ) -- It refers to the Four Functional Portions of Dharmas. We should follow the 'branches' of the seen portion and the seeing portion of Dharmas, so as to proceed to the original (main) self-realizing or self-assuring portion of Dharmas. With respect to the relativity of substratum and function, the function is to be manipulated so as to go back to the substratum.
- To conceal the weakness and reveal the strength ( 隱劣顯勝 ) -- 'Weakness' refers the mental functions ( 心所 ), and 'strength' refers to the master of mind ( 心王 ), the eighth consciousness. With respect to the mental functions and the master of mind, the former should be concealed, while the latter should be revealed.
- To discard the phenomena and certify the noumenon ( 遣相證性 ) -- to discard the discriminative phenomena, and certify the non-discriminative noumenon, with respect to the relativity of phenomena and noumenon.
- Fixed-Nature Sravaka If a great Arhat who has attained the fourth fruit does not continue and advance in his cultivation towards being a Bodhisattva, he is called a fixed-nature Sravaka. See also 'Sravaka'.
- Flower Adornment Sutra One of the most important sutra in
Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism.
There are many volumes in the Sutra. It describes the entire Buddha Realm which is, of course, not easy to
visualize. See also Avatamsaka Sutra.
- Foremost Paramita It refers to the perfect principle of Middle
Way. It is neither birth nor death, without dwelling in Nirvana. It is the substance of everything
beyond words and conceptual thinking.
- Form Dharma They are Dharmas related to all matters and substances. They are regarded as the outward manifestation of mind / consciousness. According to the Five Kinds of A Hundred Dharmas in Fa-hsiang sect, there are 11 Dharmas, as follows:
- Eye ( 眼 )
- Ear ( 耳 )
- Nose ( 鼻 )
- Tongue ( 舌 )
- Body ( 身 )
- Form ( 色 )
- Sound ( 聲 )
- Smell ( 香 )
- Taste ( 味 )
- Touch ( 觸 )
- Forms included in Dharma-ayatana ( 法處所攝色 )
There are five kinds of Dharmas of form included in Dharma-ayatana:
- a substantial form analyzed to the utmost, the smallest atom ( 極略色 )
- an unsubstantial form aerial space or color analyzed to utmost, the remotest atom ( 極迴色 )
- a perceptive form conceived at ordination, the innermost impression ( 受所引色 )
- a momentary illusive form ( 偏計所執色 )
- a form produced by meditation ( 定果色 )
- Form Realm One of the Three Realms, which can only be visualized by Dhyana, i.e. Zen or Ch'an. There are four levels of heavenly states with 18 heavens in total.
- First Dhyana Heaven or First Jhana Brahmas 初襌天 comprising 3 heavens:
- Retinue of Brahmas i.e. Brahma-parisadya in Sanskrit, Prahma-parisajja in Pali 梵眾天
- Ministers of Brahmas, i.e. Brahma-purchita in Sanskrit and in Pali 梵輔天
- Great Brahmas, i.e. Mahabrahmas in Sanskrit and Pali 大梵天
- Second Dhyana Heaven or Second Jhana Brahmas 二襌天 comprising 3 heavens：
- Brahmas of Minor Light, i.e. Parittabha in Sanskrit, 少光天
- Brahma of Infinite Light, i.e. Apramanabha in Sanskrit, 無量光天
- Brahma of Utmost Light-purity, i.e. Abhasvara in Sanskrit, or Abhassara in Pali 極光淨天 / 光音天
- Third Dhyana Heaven or Third Jhana Brahmas, 三襌天 comprising 3 heavens：
- Bramas of Minor Purity, i.e. Parittasubha in Sanskrit 少淨天
- Brahmas of Infinite Purity, i.e. Apramanasubha in Sanskrit, 無量淨天
- Brahmas of Universal Purity, i.e. Subhakrtsna in Sanskrit or Subhakinba in Pali 遍淨天
- Fourth Dhyana Heaven or Fourth Jhana Brahmas 四襌天 comprising 9 heavens：
- Cloudless Brahmas, i.e. Anabhraka in Sanskrit 無雲天
- Brahmas of Felicitous Birth, i.e. Punyaprasava in Sanskrit 福生天
- Brahmas of Great Reward, i.e. Brhatphala in Sanskrit 廣果天
- Brahmas of Unconscious Beings, i.e. Asanjnisattva in Sanskrit and Asannasatta in Pali 無想天
- Brahmas of No-vexation, i.e. Avrha in Sanskrit and Aviha in Pali, 無煩天
- Brahmas of No-heat, i.e. Atapa in Sanskrit and Atappa in Pali 無熱天
- Brahmas of Visible Beauty, i.e. Sudrsa in Sanskrit and Sudassa in Pali 善見天
- Brahmas of Beautiful Appearance, i.e. Sudarsana in Sanskrit and Sudassi in Pali 善現天
- Peerless Brahmas or Brahmas of End of Form, i.e. Akanistha in Sanskrit or Akanittha in Pali 色究竟天
See also Three Realms.
- Formless Realm One of the Three Realms, which can only be visualized by higher states of Dhyana, i.e. Zen or Ch'an. Thee are four heavens in this realm.
- Sphere of Infinite Space, or the Heaven of Boundless Emptiness Akasannantyayatana in Sanskrit and Akasanancayatana in Pali 空無邊處天
- Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, or the Heaven of Boundless Consciousness, Viynananantyayatana in Sanskrit and Vinnanancayatana in Pali 識無邊處天
- Sphere of Nothing, or the Heaven of Nothing Whatsoever, Akincanyayatanain in Sanskirt and Akincannayaana in Pali 無所有處天
- Sphere of Neither Perception Nor Non-perception, or the Heaven of Neither Thought Nor No Thought, Naiyasamjnanasamjnayatana in Sanskrit and Nevasannanasannayatana in Pali 非想非非想處天
The above four spheres or heavens, are also known as Caturupabrahmaloka 四空天.
See also Three Realms.
- Four Aspects (of Buddhist Dharma) (1) the teaching
(2) the principle
(3) the practice
(4) the fruit/reward/result
- Four Castes The class system in ancient India:
- Brahman - the highest caste,
- Kshatriyas (royal families) - the warrior,
- Vaishyas (ordinary citizen),
- Sudras (slaves).
- Four Classifications of Precepts There are four classifications of every precept:
- Precept Law ( 戒法 ) - all the precepts laid down by Shakyamuni Buddha, e.g. not to kill, not to steal.
- Precept Dogma ( 戒體 ) - those 'not-to-do' precepts.
- Precept Behavior ( 戒行 ) - the precept dogma in accord with the conditions, which are upheld through the body, mouth and mind.
- Precept Form ( 戒相 ) - precepts upheld by the seven assemblies, such as the Five Precepts, the Ten precepts, etc.
- Four Degrees of Disciples There are four different stages in the attainment of Arhatship for the disciples of Sakayamuni Buddha. See Four Fruitions.
- Four Demons The Nirvana Sutra states four kinds of demons:
- Affliction ( 煩惱魔 ) due to greed, anger and delusion
- Five Skandas ( 五陰魔 ), i.e. obstructions caused by physical and mental functions
- Death ( 死魔 ) which can terminate our lives
- Heavenly ( 天魔 ), demons in the Sixth Heaven ( Realm of Desire) can spoil our cultivation of Way
- Four Dharmadhatu It is a concept set forth by Master Tu-shun ( 杜順 ), the founder of Hua-yen ( 華嚴 ) school in his writing 'On the Meditation of Dharmadhatu': They are:
- The Dharmadhatu of 'Shih' ( 事法界 ) - 'Shih' ( 事 ) is the Chinese pronunciation of the word, which means matter, phenomenon, event. It is the realm of all matters and phenomena.
- The Dharmadhatu of 'Li'( 理法界 ) - 'Li' ( 理 ) is the Chinese pronunciation of the word, which means the principle, the law, the noumenum. It is a realm of principles.
- The Dharmadhatu of Non-obstruction of 'Li' against 'Shih' ( 理事無礙法界 ) - the realm of principles against matters and phenomena in total freedom and inter-penetrating.
- The Dharmadhatu of the Non-obstruction of 'Shih' and 'Shih' ( 事事無礙法界 ) - the realm of matters/phenomena against matters/phenomena in total and perfect freedom.
- Four Dhyanas There are four stages of Dhyana.
- The First Dhyana is called the Joyous Ground of Separating from Production ( 離生喜樂地 ), in which one's pulse stops.
- The Second Dhyana is called the Joyous Ground of Production Samadhi ( 定生喜樂地 ), in which one's breath stops, but it does not mean death. It is another realm of consciousness. The outer breath ceases and an 'inner breath' comes to life.
- The Third Dhyana is called the Wonderful Blissful Ground of Separating from Joy ( 離喜妙樂地 ), in which conscious thought ceases.
- The Fourth Dhyana is called the Pure Ground of Renouncing Thought ( 捨念清淨地 ), in which all thoughts are abandoned. One can know what is happening in the heavens and among people. However, it is only the first step in cultivating the Way.
- Four Fearlessness There are four kinds of fearlessness, of which there are two groups:
- Buddha's fearlessness arises from
- his omniscience
- perfection of character
- overcoming opposition
- ending of suffering
- Bodhisattva's fearlessness arises from
- powers of memory
- power of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy
- power of ratiocination
- power of solving doubts
- Four Fruition Also called the "Four Fruits", the "Four Rewards", or the "Four Phala".
These are four grades of arhatship, namely:
- Srota-apanna (Srota-apanna in
Sanskrit, Sota-panna in Pali) : has entered the stream of holy living; the
first stage of the arhat, that of a Sravaka
- Sakrdagamin (Sakrdagamin in Sanskrit,
Sakadagamin in Pali) : comes to be born once more; the second grade of
arhatship involving only one birth
- Anagamin: will not be reborn in this world (i.e. Six Paths), but in the Form Realm or Formless Realm, where he will attain to
- Arhat: enters Nirvana. All Karma of reincarnation is destroyed. He also reaches a
state of no longer learning. He is the highest Saint in Hinayana in contrast with the Bodhisattva as the Saint in Mahayana
- Four Functional Portions With respect to the relationship between the subjective consciousness and the object phenomena, there are four mental functional portions in each of the eight consciousnesses. They are interdependent in nature.
- The objective or the seen portion ( 相分 ), ie. Laksana-bhaga - all phenomena presented and revealed in mind. The seen portions of the first five mental faculties ( eye, ear, nose, tongue and body ) are the five 'dusts' ( form, sound, smell, taste and touch ). The seen portion of the Manas consciousness is the seeing portion of the Alaya consciousness, while the seen portion of the Alaya consciousness is the seed of all mental faculties and all matters and phenomena.
- The subjective or the seeing portion ( 見分 ), ie. Darsana-bhaga - the illumining or seeing effect of the 'dust', which is transformed to its seen portion.
- The self-realizing or the self-assuring portion ( 自証分 ) - the portion that knows the seeing portion has seen the 'dusts'. This function of cognition is called 'self-realization', or 'self-assurance' or 'self-certification', without which no knowledge can be attained.
- The re-assuring portion ( 証自証分 ) - the portion that realizes the third portion upon internal reflection. It concludes all the effects taken from the mental faculties.
For example, a piece of paper presented in mind is the seen portion, while the seeing portion is the measuring instrument to see its length and width. The self-assuring portion cognizes how long and how wide it is, according to the measurements. The re-assuring portion recognizes the accuracy of the measurements.
- Four Great Bodhisattva They represent the four major characters of Bodhisattva:
- Manjusri - Universal Great Wisdom
- Samantabhadra - Universal Worthy
Great Conduct Bodhisattva
- Ksitigarbha - Earth Treasury King
Great Vow Bodhisattva
- Avalokitesvara - Guan Shr Yin Great
- Four Great Elements All matters are formed and are composed by four conditioned causes :
(1) earth, which is characterized by solidity and durability
(2) water, which is characterized by liquid/fluid and moisture
(3) fire, which is characterized by energy and warmth
(4) wind, which is characterized by gas/air movement
- Four Great Vows
- Vow to take across the numberless living beings.
- Vow to cut off the endless afflictions.
- Vow to study the countless Dharma doors.
- Vow to realize the supreme Buddha Way.
- Four Heavenly Kings Tchaturmaharadjas in Sanskrit. Also known Four Deva Kings, who govern the four quarters or continents of the world in Caturmaharajas 四天王天.
- Dhrtarastra in the East who keeps his kingdom, color white, 持國天王
- Virudhaka in the South who grows and increase, color
- Virupaksa in the West who has broad eyes, color red, 廣目天王
- Vaisravana or Dhanada who hears much, color yellow, 多聞天王
- Four Holy Realms They are Sravaka, Praetyka-Buddha, Bodhisattva, and Buddha.
- Four Immeasurable Minds See Four Unlimited Minds.
- Four Kinds of Conditional Arising The manifestation of consciousnesses to all Form Dharmas, Mind Dharmas and other Dharmas depends on the causal conditions, which must be necessary and sufficient. There are four kinds of conditions:
- Causal conditions ( 因緣 ) --the cause of any effect due to the interaction between the seeds of the Alaya consciousness and the subsequent actions and phenomena. They are the conditions based on immediate causes.
- Non-intermittent conditions ( 無間緣 ) -- immediate cause without interval. It confines to the Mind Dharmas only. It refers to the prior thought and subsequent thought, one after the other without interval.
- Conditioned conditions ( 所緣緣 ) -- causal conditions that influence other conditions. It refers to the Dharmas of Mental Functions.
- Augmenting conditions ( 增上緣 ) -- like a catalyst to accelerate a condition to come to effect.
- Four Kinds of Empowerment through Gratitude
- Gratitude to one's parents
- Gratitude to one's teachers
- Gratitude to the founders of the nations
- Gratitude to one's almsgivers
- Four Marks A mark is a notion of form. In Diamond Sutra, it states that people
attach to the Four Marks which hinder them from Buddhahood. Conversely,
those who see all marks as no mark are Buddhas. The Four Marks are
- a mark of self
- a mark of others
- a mark of sentient being
- a mark of life
- Four Modes of Birth Tchaturyoni in Sanskrit. Four modes entering the course of transmigration, namely,
- Birth from womb (胎生), or uterus as mammals.
- Birth from egg (卵生), as birds.
- Birth from moisture (濕生), as fish and insects.
- Birth by transformation (化生), as Bodhisattvas, deities, beings in Sukhavati.
- Four Mountain Sanctuaries
- Mount Wu-tai ( 五台山 ) in Shansi Province, China - domain of Bodhisattva Mansjuri, characterized by his great wisdom,
- Mount E-mei ( 峨嵋山 ) in Sichuan Province, China - domain of Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, characterized by his great conduct.
- Mount Pu-tuo ( 普陀山 ) in Zhejiang Province, China - domain of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, characterized by his great compassion.
- Mount Jiu-hua ( 九華山 ) in Anhui Province, China - domain of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha, characterized by his great vow.
- Four Noble Truths It is the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni
The first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two to
the life outside and beyond this world.
- Doctrine of Suffering - suffering is a necessary attribute of sentient
existence (Effect of Suffering)
- Doctrine of Accumulation - accumulation of suffering is caused by passions
(Cause of Suffering)
- Doctrine of Extinction - extinction of passion (Effect of Happiness)
- Doctrine of Path - Path leading to the extinction of passion (Cause of
Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path.
The Four Noble Truths were first preached to Shakyamuni's five former ascetic
- Four Phala See Four Fruition.
- Four Pure Lands A classification by the Pure Land and Tien-tai schools of the pure realms subsumed under the Land of Amitabha Buddha, as described in the sutras:
- The Land of Common Residence of Beings and Saints ( Land Where Saints and Ordinary Beings Dwell Together ) - ( 凡聖同居土 ) , where all beings, from the Six Planes of Existence (hells, hungry ghosts .. ) to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, live together. This Land is sometimes further divided into two, the Common Residence Pure Land and the Common Residence Impure Land.
- The Land of Expediency ( Land of Expedient Liberation) - ( 方便有餘土 ) inhabited by the Arhats and Pratyeka-buddhas.
- The Land of Real Reward - ( 莊嚴依報土 ) inhabited by the great Bodhisattvas.
- The Land of Eternally Quiescent Light - ( 常寂先淨土 ) in which the Buddhas dwell.
These distinctions are at the phenomenal level. At the noumenon level, there is, of course, no difference among them.
- Four Reliance (to learning Buddhist Dharma) The four standards of Right Dharma which buddhist should rely on or abide
- to abide by the Dharma, not the person
- to abide by the sutras of ultimate truth, not the sutras of incomplete
- to abide by the meaning, not the word
- to abide by the wisdom, not the consciousness
- Four Riddhipada Four ways to obtain Riddhi:
- By annihilation of desire, called Tchhanda Riddhipada(欲足), the first step to obtain Riddhi
- By annihilation of energy, called Virya Riddhipada (精進足)
- By annihilation of memory, called Tchhitta Riddhipada (念足)
- By annihilation of meditation, called Mimamsa Riddhipada (思惟足)
- Four Seals They are:
- All phenomena are impermanent.
- All Dharma are not-self.
- The eternity is Nirvana.
- All sensations are suffering.
- Four Sects of Hinayana From the time of Ashoka, there were
four principal schools out of the Eighteen sects
of Hinayana, namely Mahasanghika, Sthavirah, Mulasarvastivadah and Sammatiyah.
- Four Stages of Cultivation Lu Sect or Vinaya Sect divides four different stages in cultivation of Buddhahood through Vinaya:
- The Stage of Vow and Joy ( 願樂位 ) -- It takes one Asamkhyeya Kalpa to achieve by practicing Ten Faith, Ten Dwelling, Ten Conduct, Ten Transference, etc.
- The Stage of Visualization ( 見位 ) -- It is equivalent to the first stage of Bodhisattva, in which the Way or the Truth is visualized.
- The Stage of Cultivation ( 修位 ) -- It is equivalent to the second to seventh stage of Bodhisattva, in which the practitioner cultivates the Way. It takes another Asamkhysya Kalpa to achieve the above two stages.
- The Stage of Eternity ( 究竟位 ) -- It also takes one Asamkhyeya Kalpa to achieve. It is equivalent to the eighth and the tenth stage of Bodhisattva.
- Four Unlimited Mind The mind of Bodhisattva:
- Four Virtues The four Nirvana virtues:
(1) Eternity or permanence
These four important virtues are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental
- Four Ways (of learning Buddhist Dharma) (1) Belief/faith
These are the cyclic process in learning a truth.
- Fourfold Assembly Or the Four Varga (groups) are bhiksu, bhiksuni, upasaka and upasika,
i.e. monks, nuns, male and female devotees.
- Fourfold Wisdom of Buddha It is one of the importanct doctrines of Fa-hsiang sect. When one's knowledge and wisdom have been perfected through cultivation, the eight consciousnesses will turn into perfect wisdom as follows:
- Wisdom that Accomplishes All ( 成所作智 ) -- transformed from the five consciousnesses.
- Wisdom of Good Observation ( 妙觀察智 ) -- transformed from the mind-consciousness (Mano-consciousness).
- Wisdom of equanimity ( 平等性智 ) -- transformed from the Manas-consciousness.
- Wisdom of Magnificent Mirror ( 大圓鏡智) -- transformed from the Alaya-consciousness.
- The Fourth Council It was held in Cashmere under the patronage of Kanishka probably about 40 A.D. Three commentaries were compiled. Although the Mahayana was in existence as a specific school, its doctrines were promulgated at this council, and the Hinayana schools did not recognize it.
- Fundamental Face Also known as Fundamentally Unborn. A common term used in Chan practice.
It is actually the fundamental mind, considered to be the Buddha's Dharma
Body. It is the form of the fundamental truth, so called True Suchness or Bhutaththata.
- Gatha Also called stanza. It is the poem and chant, which is the versified part of a sutra. It is one of the twelve divisions of the Mahayana canon.
- Gati Sanskrit word literally means path. It refers to the Six Paths of Existence in Ten Dharma Realms.
- Gautama Sanghadeva (~300 A.D.) Gautama Sanghadeva originated from Kabul. He translated 7 scriptures during 383-398 A.D., including:
- Madhyama-agama i.e. Middle Length Sayings (中阿含經) 60 fascicles in 397-398 A.D.
- Ekottara-agama i.e. Gradual Sayings (增一阿含經), 51 fascicles 397-398 A.D.
- Treatise of the Heart of Abhidharma (阿毗曇心論)
- Gaya The place where the Buddha attained Enlightenent. Spot marked by Bodhi tree and temples about six miles south of Gaya.
- Geya A Sanskrit word which means reiterative verse recapitulating the prose which precedes it. It is the metrical pieces or parts of a sutra, and one of the twelve divisions of the Mahayana canon.
- Ghana A Sanskrit word that refers to the fourth week of embryonic development, the solid flesh.
- Giving See charity.
- Gokulika See Kaukkutikah.
- Gong and Drum One of the ritual instruments used in temples. The enormous gong and drum usually hanged under the eaves of the Main Shrine open and close each day at the temple. In the morning, the gong is rung first, then followed by the drum. This alerts all sentient being that night is over and it is time to awake. In the evening the order is reversed with the drum beaten first and then the gong. In Chinese monasteries the bell is rung 108 times, three sets of eighteen quick and eighteen slow chimes. Each chime is said to provide temporary relief from suffering for the beings in hell.
- Good Knowing Advisor A courteous term generally used to call upon the Buddhist followers, the audiences of the Buddhist assembly.
The word good in this title may be explained as able, because a good, knowing adviser is capable of knowledge; that is, he is capable of knowing, without any obstruction whatever, that the triple world is like a burning house. There are three kinds of good, knowing advisers:
- outward protectors
- fellow cultivators
The first are those who supply the things necessary to support the Triple Jewel, and they act as Dharma protectors. The second, fellow cultivators, help find and correct each other's flaws. Since one may not know his own shortcomings, his fellow cultivators can help point them out. This does not mean, however, that they pick on and anger one another. The idea behind this kind of relationship is mutual aid. For the third one, a teaching good, knowing adviser is the one who instructs beings in the Buddhadharma, who lectures on sutras and speaks Dharma in order to teach them.
- Good Roots The term refers to accumulated good deeds done within the Buddhadharma. Planning good roots leads to the reaping of good rewards in the future. Good roots planted in the past bring rewards now or in the future.
There are eleven kinds of good roots:
- absence of greed
- absence of hatred
- absence of stupidity
These are eleven good Dharmas of the fifty one Dharmas belonging to the heart.
- Good Spiritual Advisor Or Guru, Virtuous Friend, Wise Person.
Bodhisattva, Buddha or anyone (even an evil being) who can help the practitioner progress along the path of Enlightenment. Wisdom should be the primary factor in selecting such an advisor. Both advisor and practitioner must exercise wisdom in selecting one another. An evil being can help us to avoid certain transgressions by indirectly drawing our attention to the negative consequences of those actions.
- Gotama Gotama in Pali, Gautama in Sanskrit. The surname of the Shakya clan into which Shakyamuni was born. Another name for
- Great Arhat A person who has attained the fourth fruit of enlightenment is called Great Arhat.
Arhat is a Sanskrit word with three meanings:
- Worthy of offering ( 應供 )
- Without birth ( 無生 )
- Killer of thieves ( 殺賊 )
There are different interpretations for the three meanings for the great Arhats and small Arhats. See 'Small Arhat'.
- Great Kalpa In this world, one development and one decline are called one Kalpa. When the human lifespan reaches its peak of 84,000 years, then every hundred years the average height decreases by one inch and the lifespan decreases by one year. This continues until the human lifespan reaches 10 years; then it begins to increase again. Once again, every hundred years, the lifespan increases by one year and the average height increases by one inch. When the lifespan reaches 84,000 years, it is called one Kalpa.
A thousand Kalpas make one Samll Kalpa ( 小劫 ), which is 16,800,000 years in this world.
20 Small Kalpas make one Middle Kalpa ( 中劫 ), which is 336,000,000 years in this world.
4 Middle Kalpas make one Great Kalpa ( 大劫 ), which is 1,344,000,000 years in this world.
It takes 20 Small Kalpas for this world to come into being. It dwells for another 20 Small Kalpas. It then decays for 20 Small Kalpas, and is finally empty for 20 years. That is what is meant by production ( 成 ), dwelling ( 住 ), decaying ( 壞 )
and emptiness ( 空 ).
The 20 Small Kalpas of production make one Middle Kalpas, and so for dwelling, decaying and emptiness. Thus, the four
processes together make one Great Kalpa.
See also Kalpa.
- Great Vehicle Same as Mahayana in Sanskrit, while Small Vehicle refers to Hinayana.
- Gui Ji Gui Ji (A.D. 632-682) was a great Dharma master of the Dharmalaksana School. His writing on the
Lotus Sutra was so remarkable that was generally accepted and interpreted by
other great Dharma masters.
- Gunabhadra (394-468 A.D.) Gunabhadra was born in Central India, and moved from Ceylon to China during the Period of Disunity. He translated 52 scriptures in 134 fascicles including:
- Samyukta-agama, i.e. Kindred Sayings (雜阿含經), 50 fascicles in 435-443 A.D.
- Lankaratara Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Appearance of the Good Doctrine in (Sri) Lanka (楞伽經), 4 fascicles in 443 A.D.
- Samdhinirmochana Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Continuation Stream of Emancipation (相續解脫經), 1 fascicle in 420 A.D.
- Shrimaladevi Simhanada Sutra, i.e. Queen of Shrimala Sutra (the Lion's Roar of Queen Shrimala) (勝鬘經) 1 fascicle in 436 A.D.
- 求那跋陀羅 / 功德賢
- Han Shan Han-shan, also called 'Cold Mountain', (627-649 AD) was an eminent Ch'an master in China. He was said to be an avatar of Manjusri Bodhisattva, appearing as a mad monk living in Mount Tien Tai ( 天台 ).
- Han Shan Han-shan, also called 'Silly Mountain', (1546-1623) was a name adopted by Ch'an master Te Ching ( 德清 ), who was responsible for the revival of the Ch'an sect in China in Ming Dynasty.
- Haimavatah One of the Hinayana School, a
subdivision of Sthaviradin. It was a
school of the snow mountains, a schismatic philosophical school.
- Hand Chime One of the ritual instruments used in the temple. The hand chime is constructed of a small inverted bell attached to the top of a long handle. A long metallic needle of almost the same length, tied to the handle by a string, is used to strike the inverted bell to produce a high pitch ring.
This instrument is used to coordinate the vocal and physical actions of the assembly during Buddhist ceremonies. It is struck to keep rhythm during the chanting of certain passages of a religious text and also to signal when a transition is about to be made from one section of the text to the next. The chime is also used to let the assembly know when to bow and when to rise during the performance of prostrations.
In some cases, the use of the chime is also considered beneficial when used in chanting for those who are nearing death.
- Hang-held Gong One of the ritual instruments used in temples. Tang Zi, a cauldron-like brass vessel with a wooden handle attached to the bottom, is struck with a small mallet during chanting services and Dharma functions. This is also another Dharma implement to be found in the monasteries.
- Hau Tou Intense concentration on a question-word which defies any answer and
allows no answer at all. Literally, it refers to the source of word before it
is uttered. It is a method used in Ch'an Sect
to arouse the doubt. The practitioner meditates on questions as who is
reciting the Buddha's name?. He does not rely on experience or reasoning.
Sometimes, it is also known as Kung-an.
- Heaps It is translated from the Sanskrit word 'Skandhas'. What appears to be the "e;self"e; or "e;personality"e; may be broken down into five impersonal components called heaps:
See also 'Tamas'.
- Heaven of Abundant Fruit It is the third heaven of the Fourth Dhyana. The Abundant Fruit Heaven is the highest reward common people can obtain, the highest state that includes the gods of the realm of desire. In this heaven, all the defilements of the lower heavens are left behind and there is illimitable and inexhaustible happiness. Here the miraculous functioning of spiritual penetrations can be found. The wonderful compliance attained in the heaven immediately prior is even more subtle in this heaven, and the gods are able to attain whatever they wish.
- Heaven of Birth of Blessing In the Birth of Blessings Heaven, the cause of suffering is exhausted and bliss is not permanent. In the realms below this, that is, in the Second and Third Dhyanas, suffering and distress remain even though pulse and breath may stop. In the Birth of Blessings Heaven, the first of the nine heavens of the Fourth Dhyana, the causes of suffering come to an end and the seeds of suffering cease to exist. Since the gods have no suffering, they are also unattached to their happiness, and so it is said that their bliss is not permanent.
The cause of suffering eliminated in this heaven is desire, more precisely, sexual desire. When there is no sexual desire, there are no seeds of suffering. The gods of the Second Dhyana have cut off thoughts of desire; in the Fourth Dhyana the very seed of desire, the appearance of all coarse forms, is cut off, and blessings are born.
- Heaven of Comfort Gained through Transformation of Others' Bliss The gods of the Heaven of Comfort Gained through Transformation of Others' Bliss obtain their bliss through transforming it away from other heavens. Those who live in this heaven are neither genuine spirits nor immortals but heavenly demons.
- Heaven of Lesser Light The first of these heavens of the Second Dhyana is called the Heaven of Lesser Light. The bodies of this heaven's inhabitants shine with a light much greater than that of the Suyama Heaven but less than that of the other two heavens of the Second Dhyana. They shine because they maintained the precepts purely in the world. In the First Dhyana, the gods of the Multitudes of Brahma and the Ministers of Brahma also maintained the precepts purely, but they did not emit light. However, here in the heavens of the Second Dhyana, the gods have maintained the precepts so well that their bodies shine.
- Heaven of Light-Sound The second of the four heavens in First Dhyana. The inhabitants of the Heaven of Light-Sound use light to speak. Just as television uses light to create pictures, the gods of this heaven use light to represent speech. Some commentators say that these gods have no language and cannot speak, but this is not the case, for if it were, they would have done good deeds and been reborn in the heavens only to find themselves mute. Just as humans have both spoken and written aspects of language, the gods in this heaven use light to represent speech.
- Heaven of No Affliction It is the fifth heaven of the Fourth Dhyana, In the Heaven of No Affliction, there are neither views nor thought. Views means the arising of greed when faced by any sort of condition; thought is con- fusion about principle and indulgence in discriminating thinking. The gods of this heaven have neither suffering nor bliss and obtain a cool refreshment.
- Heaven of No Heat It is the sixth heaven of the Fourth Dhyana. In the Heaven of No Heat, there is no heat from afflictions. In the Heaven of Good Views there is an extremely wide and expansive vista. In the Heaven of Good Manifestation, a very subtle form of transformation occurs, and the inhabitants are able to create all sorts of wonderful pleasures.
- Heaven of No-thought It is the fourth heaven of the Fourth Dhyana. In Heaven of No-Thought, the inhabitants have cut off thought, although not permanently. Their lifespan is five hundred Kalpas, and during the first four hundred and ninety-nine they have no thought. In the last half of the final Kalpa, however, thought once again arises; consequently "No-Thought" actually means that there is very little thought. The inhabitants of this heaven belong to the paths of the externalists and demons who think that they have achieved an ultimate Nirvana. What they do not realize, however, is that, in spite of their cultivation, they too are doomed to fall.
- Heaven of the Four Kings 'Caturmaharaja' in Sanskrit. It is the heaven closest to us. It lies halfway up Mount Sumeru on the east, south, west and north. The Four Heavenly Kings are:
- the Heavenly King who Upholds his Country ( 持國天王 ),
- the Heavenly King of Increase and Growth ( 增長天王 ),
- the Heavenly King of the Broad Eyes ( 廣目天王 ), and
- the Heavenly King of Learning ( 多聞天王 ).
The lifespan of the inhabitants in the Heaven is 500 years. One day and night in that Heaven is equivalent to 50 years on our Earth.
See also Four Heavenly Kings and Six Heavens of Desire.
- Heaven of the Great Brahma King The third of the three heavens of the First Dhyana. A being has cultivated the merits of the heavens, but has not truly become enlightened or certified to the fruit. Consequently he ascends through the heavens to be the Great Brahma King. He is surrounded and protected by gods from the two other heavens in the first Dhyana.
- Heaven of the Love of Blesssing The second heaven of the Fourth Dhyana is called the Heaven of the Love of Blessings, and it is here that there is a supreme renunciation. What cannot be renounced is nonetheless renounced, and what cannot be given up is given up. The gods of this realm obtain a supreme purity of liberation. Their blessings are unfathomably great, and they reach beyond heaven and earth to attain a state of wonderful compliance in which everything accords with their intent. Their bliss is renounced and they are apart from both suffering and bliss. Although devoid of craving for the realms of desire and form, they nonetheless have a hope, something for which they seek: the heavens directly above them.
- Heaven of the Ministers of Brahma The second of three heavens of the First Dhyana. In the Heaven of the Ministers of Brahma are the attendants of the Great Brahma Lord, who lives in the heaven above, i.e. Heaven of the Great Brahma King.
- Heaven of the Multitudes of Brahma The first of the three heavens of the First Dhyana is called the Multitudes of Brahma, because of the emotional desire of those in the Six Desire Heavens.
- Heaven of the Thirty-three A heaven in the Realm of Desire, with 32 god-kings presided over by Indra, thus totaling 33 , located at the summit of Mount Sumeru.
- Heavenly Eye See Devine Eye.
- Hetavadinah Another name of Sarvastivadah.
- Hinayana Also called Small Vehicle or Liberated Vehicle, which refers to Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha. It is a school of Buddhism,
popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, hence also known as Southern Buddhism,
in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahayana, the form mainly prevalent from
Nepal to Japan.
Hinayana is sometimes described as self-benefiting, and Mahayana as self-benefiting for the benefit of others.
Another difference is that Pali is the general literary language in Hinayana
while Sanskrit of Mahayana. See also
Hinayana is nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha. For further
details, please refer to Section 3-A A Glimpse in the Scope of Buddhism
in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Buddhist Door.
- Hondo A Japanese term to mean the main hall in a Japanese monastery. It is usually a separate building used principally for lectures and meal. The statue of the founder is usually placed.
- Host and Guest In Shurangama Sutra, the Buddha drew an analogy of host and guest to illustrate the relationship of the fundamental (nouemon) and phenomena.
- Hsing Szu He was a famous Ch'an master in Ching Yuan Mountain (青原), one of the Dharma-successor of the sixth patriarch Hui Neng (惠能), the teacher of Hsi Chien (希遷) of Shih Tou Rock ( 石頭 ). As he was the teacher of Shih Tou, he was regarded as the common patriarch of the Ch'an houses of Tsao-tung, Yun-men and Fa-yen. He died in 741 AD.
- Hsu Yun A great Ch'an master in China. He died in
1959 at the age of 120.
- Hsuan Sha He was a Ch'an master Shih Pei ( 師備 ) of Hsuan Sha Mountain. He died in 908 AD when he was 74.
- Hsuan-tsang (600-664 A.D.) A famous translator in Chinese Buddhism, next to Kumarajiva. He
translated more scriptures than any other translators, such as:
Hsuan-tsang was born into a family of scholars near Loyang (洛陽), but his father did not want to serve the new king,
then became poor. In order to make a living, Tsuan-tsang followed the step
of his elder brother to become ordained monk when he was a child.
- Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra, i.e. Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (大般若波羅密多經), 600 fasicles translated in 660-663 A.D.
- Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-shastra (Treatise on the Establishment of the
Doctrine of Mere Consciousness) (成唯識論), 10 fasciles
translated in 659 A.D.
- Mahayanabhidharma-samucchaya (collection of the Mahaya Abhidharma)
(大乘阿毗達摩集論), 7 fasciles in 652 A.D.
- Mahayanabhidharma-samucchaya-vyakhya (Exeglsis on the collection of the
Mahayana Abhidhin), 16 fasciles in 646 A.D.
- Mahayanasamgraha (comprehensive Treatise on Mahayana Buddhism)
(攝大乘論), 3 fasciles in 648-649 A.D.
However, when he was eleven, he was able to read the Vinalakirti Sutra, the
Lotus Sutra, etc. He was brought up at Hui-jih Temple in Loyang. Later,
he went to Chuang-yen Temple in Chang-an in search of better teachers, but
in vain. Because of famine, Tsuan-tsang settled in Szechuan Province and
continued his study in Buddhism. He kept on seeking for better teachers,
but found no more outstanding scholars.
In 629, when Hsuan-tsang was around thirty, he set out to the west for
travel and study. In his travels, he had recorded all his experience in
India and Central Asia in details, which had important information on
geography, history, politics, economics, culture of that time.
- Hsueh Feng Master I Tsuan ( 義存 ) of Hsueh Feng Peak ( 雪峰 ), teacher of Yun Men ( 雲門 ). He died in 909 AD when he was 87.
- Hua-yen School It is based on the Avatamsaka Sutra
and was founded by Tu Shun in China.
- Huai Jang Also known as Huai Jang of Nan Yo (南嶽), Dharma-successor of the sixth patriarch Hui Neng (惠能), the teacher of Ma Tsu (馬祖). As he was the teacher of Ma Tsu, he was regarded as the common patriarch of of the Ch'an houses of Kuei-yang and Lin-chi. He died in 744 AD when he was 68.
- Huang Lung A Ch'an master Pu Chueh ( 普覺 ) of Huang Lung Mountain. He died in 1069 when he was 68.
- Huang Mei Another name of Master Hung Jen ( 弘忍 ), the fifth patriarch of the Ch'an sect in China.
- Huang Po Ch'an Master Hsi Yun ( 希運 ) of Huang Po Mountain. He was the Dharma successor of Pai Chang ( 百丈 ) and the teacher of Lin Chi ( 臨濟 ). He died in Ta Chung reign.
- Hui Chu He was the Korean Ch'an master in the 10th century.
- Hui Chueh Ch'an master Hui Cheuh of Lang Yeh ( 瑯耶 ) in Sung Dynasty.
- Hui Chung A famous Ch'an master Hui Chung of Nan Yang ( 南陽 ). He was the Dharma successor of Hui Neng ( 慧能 ). He died in 776 AD.
- Hui Leng Ch'an master Hui Leng of Chang Ching ( 長慶 ) was the disciple of Hsueh Feng ( 雪峰 ). He died in 932 AD when he was 79.
- Hui Neng The Sixth Patriarch of Zen (Ch'an) Sect in China.
- Hui Tsang Also called Hui Tsang of Shih Kung ( 石鞏 ), the hunter monk, an eminent Ch'an master, the disciple of Ma Tsu ( 馬祖 ). He died in 8th century.
- I Ching (635-713 A.D.) I-Ching set out by the sea route for India and travelled over 30 countries in 20 years, and collected over 500,000 Buddhist verses in Nalanda Monastery before returning to China in 675 A.D. He translated 61 scriptures in 239 fascicles, including
- Sarvabhava Vinaya (一切有部毗奈耶) 50 fascicles
- Avadana, i.e. Stores (譬喻經) 1 fascicle in 710 A.D.
- Suvarnaprabhascottamaraja-sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Most Honored King (金光明最勝王經) 10 fascicles in 703 A.D.
- Avatamsaka Sutra (華嚴經)
- Icchantika Literally, it means 'great desire'. It is a class of being that cut off all their 'virtuous root' (kusala-mala), and thus, is very difficult to save, as they do not believe anything in the doctrine.
There are three kinds of Icchantika:
- the wicked (一闡提迦)
- Bodhisattva who becomes Icchantika to save all beings (大悲闡提)
- one without a nature for Nirvana (無性闡提)
- Ichinen A Japanese term commonly used in Zen Buddhism. It means one thought, when the mind is concentrated and disturbed, which will rise to awareness and enlightenment in further meditation.
- Ignorance Sanskrit word is Avidya. Literally, it means darkness without
illumination. Actually it refers to illusion without englightenment, i.e.,
the illusory phenomena for realities. Avidya is the first or the last of the
Twelve Nidanas. Ignorance, karma and desire are the three forces that cause
- Incense The burning of aromatic substances in worship, extensively used in Buddhist rituals and ceremonies in China. It seems to have two purposes in Chinese traditions:
- pleasant odors are naturally pleasing the sages,
- rising smoke naturally suggested ascent to heaven.
- Incense Vessel The incense vessel is used for holding incense that is burnt as an offering to Buddhist deities. Incense vessels can be made from different materials such as various types of metals or alloys, jade, porcelain, clay and stone. There exist various shapes and forms to the incense vessel but the most basic and commonly seen are those that are containers with a circular mouth. They may be flat-bottomed or be supported by three legs. Straight incense sticks are inserted vertically into ash or rice contained in the vessel. Another type is the lying incense vessel which is oblong and round at both ends. It is also filled with ash and incense sticks are placed into the vessel in a lying horizontal position. This type of incense vessel also can have a lid with several openings through which the incense fumes can escape.
There are also incense vessels with special covers or lids that are used for burning wooden incense pieces. After pieces of incense wood are placed into the vessel along with incense powder that is then lit, the cover or lid is placed on top of the vessel and the incense smoke rises slowly through the many openings in the lid. The holes in the lid can be of various shapes and the lid may be mounted by an auspicious animal such as a lion or dragon. As clouds of gentle fragrance rise slowly through the lid and permeate the air, the environment becomes conducive to relaxation and contemplation and can induce feelings or sincere piety and devotion.
Lastly, there exist very large incense vessels that are found in front of temples in traditional monasteries. These huge incense vessels usually have a pagoda-like roof and are supported by three legs. Twin dragons may flank the sides of the huge incense vessel and auspicious symbols and writing may be a part of its design. These huge incense vessels are placed just outside the main temple hall and are called treasure cauldrons in Chinese.
- Individual Karma The deeds that each person does which leads to rewards or retributions particular to that individual. See also Collective Karma.
- Indra The short word of Sakro-devanamindra, i.e. Sakra, the king of gods. See Sakrs.
- Indu-Dharmaraksa / Chu Fa-hu Dharmaraksha was ordained at eight years old. He was very talented in reading and writing, and was proficient in 36 languages while he traveled. He moved to China from India in the Period of Disunity. He was also known as Tun-huang Bodhisattva (敦煌菩薩).
With a group of 12 translators, he translated 175 scriptures of 354 fascicles during 266-317 A.D. These include:
- Avatamsaka Sutra (華嚴經)
- Agama Sutra (阿含經)
- Vaipulya Sutras (方等經)
- Lotus Sutras(法華經)
- Nirvana Sutra(涅槃經)
- Panchavimshati Sahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (光讚般若波羅蜜經) 10 fascicles in 286 A.D.
- Lalitavistara, i.e. Detailed Narration of the Sport of the Buddha (普曜經) 8 fascicles in 308 A.D
- Ullambana Sutra (孟蘭盆經) 1 fascicle.
- Indu-Dharmaranya Moved from India to China about 25 A.D. Together with Kashyapamatanga,
they were regarded as the first translator for Buddhist sutras in China.
They translated five sutras but only "Sutra of Forty-two Chapters" was
- Intermediate Precepts They are also known as Three Cumulative Pure Precepts ( 三聚淨戒 ), which are three kinds of precepts leading us to the perfection in cultivating Buddhahood:
- Precepts of rules and disciplines ( 攝律儀戒 ) -- precepts that prevent us from doing evil, such as the Five Precepts, the Ten Precepts, etc.
- Precepts of morality ( 攝善法戒 ) -- precepts that encourage us to do good for oneself.
- Precepts of mercy and benevolence ( 攝眾生戒 ) -- precepts that beneficial to other sentient beings, whom are liberated from suffering and salvaged.
See also Differentiated Precepts.
- Iron Mountain One of the mythical mountains supposed to encircle the earth, an Indian mythology.
- Jainism A religion founded by Nataputta, who was a royal clan of the Nata tribe in
ancient India at the time of Shakyamuni.
Similar to Buddhism, its basic doctrine is non-materialistic atheism.
- Jataka The sutra to narrate the birth stories
of Shakyamuni in present life, past lives,
and effects related to the past lives and the present lives.
- Jetavaniyah Or Jetiyasailah, school of the dwellers on Mount Jeta, which is a sub
division of the Sthavirah, one of the Hinayana sect.
Also known as Caitya-vandana, who paid reverence to or worship a stupa. Caitya is a religious monument or stupa
in which the relics of the Buddha or other reverend sages are placed. This
sect held that the Buddha's discourse was transcendent, his enlightenment was
already determined when he was born, that he could violate the natural laws,
and could be reborn wherever he wished (in his previous lives as a Bodhisattva).
- Jetavanna Grove A famous monastery Bodhimandala of Shakyamuni Buddha, where he spoke of many sutras. It was located in Savatthi, the capital of savatthi. The land was bought by a wealthy
merchant Anathapindika with as much gold
as would cover the ground, and the houses were built by Prince Jeta for the
Buddha and his followers.
- Ji Zang Ji Zang (A.D. 549-623) was a great Dharma master of Madhyamika, who wrote
five books regarding the Lotus Sutra.
- Jie Huan He was a great Dharma master in Sung Dynasty. Practicing in Chan School, he used the concept of Chan to interpret the Lotus Sutra.
- Jikijitsu The leader of Zazen in the Zendo of a Rinzai Zen monastery in Japan.
- Jiriki An important official in a Japanes Zen monastery. Working with the Jikijitsu, he manages all Zendo affairs. He plays the administrative role, rather than the teaching and training ones.
- Jnanagupta Jnanagupta went to China from Gandhara in North India at the end of the Period of Disunity, but recognized by the new Emperor, Sui Wen-ti (隋文帝). He got 260 sutras in Sanskrit, and was supported by the emperor to translate the sutras. He translated 39 scriptures in 192 fascicles during 561-592 A.D., including Sutra of Buddha's Fundamental Deed (佛本行經), 60 fascicles and Candrottaradarikapariprccha (月上女經) 2 fascicles. He also translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 601, jointly with Dharmagupta.
- 闍那崛多 / 志德
- Jnanayasas Jnanayasas went to China from Magadha in North India at the end of the Period of Disunity, but recognized by the new Emperor Sui Wen-ti (隋文帝). He was the teacher of Yasogupta and Jnanagupta. He translated 7 scriptures in 51 fascicles, including Sutra of Great Compassion (大悲經)
and Sutra of Moon Store (月藏經).
- 闍那耶舍 / 尊稱
- Jushoku The head monk of a Japanese Zen monastery.
- Kala Sanskrit word means a season. It refers to a period of time, equivalent to 4 hours as there are six Kala in a day.
- Kalala A Sanskrit word that refers to the first week of embryonic development, the 'slippery coagulation'.
- Kalpa Kalpa in Sanskrit, Kappa in Pali. It is a fabulous period of four
hundred and thirty two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of
world. It is the period of time between other creation and recreation of a
world or universe.
The four kalpas of formation, existence, destruction and emptiness as a
complete period, is called maha kalpa or great kalpas. Each great
kalpa is subdivided into four asamkhyeya-kalpas or kalpas. Each of the
four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas, or small kalpas.
There are different distinctions and illustrations of kalpas. In general, a
small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years
and a mahakalpa is 1,334,000,000 years.
- Kancho The abbot of a Japanese monastery. He is the administrative head, who may or may not be a Roshi.
- Kapilavatsu The capital of Shakya kingdom. The
king of Kapilavatsu was Suddhodana, who was the father of Shakyamuni. The present-day Kapilavatsu
is in Nepal.
- Karma Karman in Sanskrit, Kamma in Pali. It means action, deed, moral duty,
effect. Karma is moral action which causes future retribution, and either
good or evil transmigration. It is also moral kernal in each being which
survive death for further rebirth.
- Karmasiddhiprakarana It was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 1 fascicle.
- Karunikaraja Prajnaparamita Sutra See Prajnaparamita Sutra of the Benevolent Kings.
- Kashaya A monk's robe or cassock. Literally, it means the color composed of dyed red and yellow usually. It is actually a Sanskrit word which means 'mute colored', and indicates that it is 'clothing for getting out of dust'.
- Kashyapamatanga Moved from India to China at about 25 A.D. Together with Dharmaraksha,
they were regarded as the first translator for Buddhist sutras in China.
They translated five sutras but only "Sutra of Forty-two Chapters" was extant.
- Kasyapiya One of the Hinayana sect, a
subdivision of Sarvastivadah.
- Kaukkutikah One of the Hinayana sect. A branch of
Mahasanghikah. They held that there is no
hapiness whatsoever in the world, just suffering.
- Ke Fu Alias Chih I ( 紙衣 ). He was the disciple of Lin Chi ( 臨濟 ). He died in the 9th century.
- Kensho A Japanese term to mean 'seeing into one's own nature'. It is regarded as the first experience of Satori, the goal of Zen practice.
- King Bimblisara The king of Magadha, one of the four
great kingdoms in ancient India. He was devoted in Buddhism, and was
converted to the follower of Shakyamuni
Buddha. He was the one who built Bamboo
Grove Park in Rajagaha, the first
Bodhi mandala in Buddhism.
- King Prasenajit King Prasenjit, whose name means 'Moonlight', was born in India on the same day the Buddha was. When the Buddha entered the world, a light illumined the entire country, and King Prasenajit's father thought the light was connected with the birth of his son, so he named him 'Moonlight'. The child later succeeded the father to become the ruler of a country in India. He welcomed and invited the Buddha before the preaching of Shurangama Sutra.
- Kinhin A Japanese term to mean 'Sutra walking' ( 經行 ). It is a formal marching round the meditating hall inside or outside the monastery during periods of rest from sitting meditation (i.e. Zazen in Japanese), so as to loosen stiff joints and exercise the body.
- Kinnara Sanskrit word literally means not men (非人) or doubtful spirit (疑神). The demons are dangerous to men. They are also the musicians represented with horse heads of Kuvera or Vaisramana (財神). See also Eight Divisions of Dragon Kings and Devas.
- Klesa Sanskrit word means ‘defilement’, i.e. morally defiling passions. Kilesa in Pali.
In Hinayana Buddhism, there are ten Klesas. The first six are generally regarded as the fundamental Klesas:
- Greed (Lobha)
- Hatred (Dosa)
- Delusion (Moha)
- Conceit (Mana)
- Speculative views ( Ditthi)
- Doubt ( Vicikiccha)
- Mental sloth (Thina)
- Restlessness (Uddhacca)
- Shamelessness (Ahirika)
- Mental carelessness (Anottappa)
- Koan A Japanese term taken from the Chinese Kung-an.
- Koliya The royal clan to which the mother of Shakyamuni, Maya belonged. The kings of
the Koliya and Shakya were brothers, and
the families were inter-married. Indeed, Yasodhara, the wife of Shakyamuni,
was also a princess of Koliya royal house.
- Kosala Kosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four great states (i.e.,
Kosala, Magadha, Vansa & Avanti) in ancient
India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the power and
influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where the famous
monastery (Bodhi-mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.
- Koti Sanskrit word means ten myriads, which is equivalent to one hundred millions (億).
- Ksatriya Ksatriya in Sanskrit, Khattiya in Pali. The second of the four
Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the
noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling castes.
- Ksetra Ksetra is a Sanskrit word, which means 'realm', 'sphere' or 'world'.
- Kshana It is a Sanskrit word, which is the unit of time to express the shortest duration. According to The Prajna Sutra of the Humane King who Protects his Country, in every thought, brief as a thought is, there are ninety Kshanas. In every Kshana, there are nine hundred productions and extinctions. Thus, it is not easy to understand and to detect. Even in the extremely brief space of a Kshana, the process of aging never ceases.
- Ksitigarbha Earth Store Bodhisattva. He is now the guardian of the earth.
Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power
over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the Nirvana of Shakyamuni and the advent of Maitreya. He vows that while the hell is not
empty, he will not attain Buddhahood. As his vow is the greatest, he is also
known as The Great Vow Bodhisattva.
- Kuan Chi Ch'an master Chih Hsien ( 志閑 ) of Kuan Chi ( 灌溪 ), Dharma-successor of Lin Chi ( 臨濟 ) and Mo Shan ( 末山 ). He died in 895.
- Kuan Ting Also called Kuan Ting of Chang An ( 章安 ), the fifth patriarch of Tien Tai Sect.
- Kuei Chen Chan master Kuei Chen of Lo Han ( 羅漢 ) Temple was the disciple of Hsuan Sha ( 玄沙 ) and the teacher of Fa Yen ( 法眼 ). He died in 936 AD when he was 62.
- Kuei Shan Chan Master of Ling Yu ( 靈佑 ) of Kuei Shan Mountain. He was the Dharma successor of Pai Chang and the teacher of Yang Shan ( 仰山 ). He was the co-founder of Kuei Yang ( 溈仰 ) branch of Chan sect in China. He died in 853 AD when he was 83.
- Kukkuta Padagiri Mountain The name of the mountain in Sanskrit, which is usually translated as Chicken Foot Mountain (雞足). It is the mountain near Gaya, in which Mahakasyapa is believed to be living at present.
- Kumarajiva (344-413 A.D.) One of the most eminent translators in Chinese Buddhism. He was born in
a noble family, but he went with his mother to learn Agama Sutras and other
Hinayana taught him Mahayana Buddhism.
Kumarajiva was ordained as a monk at the age of twenty. He was so famous in
his countries that Tao-an would like to invite him to China. His mother also
encouraged Kumarajiva to preach the genuine teachings of Buddhism in China.
Eventually, Kumarajiva arrived at Chang-an (長安) and welcomed by the
Emperor Yao Hsing (姚興). Kumarajiva was honoured to be the
National Preceptor, who was in charge of translating sutras.
Kumarajiva translated 74 scriptures in 384 fasicles in total, such as
Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, the Lotus Sutra, the Amitabha Sutra, the
Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, the Treatise on the Middle,
the Treatise in One Hundred Verses, the Treatises on the Twelve Gates and the
Ten Vinaya. His translation work contributed both to the development of
Buddhism in China, and to the establishment of various sects in Chinese
Before he died, he preclaimed that if his translation accorded with the
genuine principles of Buddhism, his tongue would be intact and not turn to
ash. After incineration of his body, the tongue was not damaged.
- Kung-an In Zen, it is a word, or a phrase, or a
story couched in irrational language which cannot be solved by intellectual
processes, but whose meaning must burst on the mind directly. Kung-an is used
as an exercise in breaking the false thoughts, developing the deep intuition,
and achieving a state of awareness.
- Kushala Sanskrit word. It means good Karma.
- Kusinara Kusinara in Pali, Kusinagara in Sanskrit. The village where Shakyamuni died, and the capital of the
ancient kingdom of Malla.