T - Z

Tan Hsia Also known as master Tien Jan ( 天然 ) of Tan Hsia. He was the Dharma-successor of Shih Tou ( 石頭 ). He became famous for burning a wooden statue of Buddha to enlighten a monk. He died in 824 AD when he was 86.

Ta Kuan Also called Arya Tsu Pe (1543-1604), a famous Ch'an master and close friend of Han Shan (憨山) with whom he sat cross-legged face to face for 49 days and nights without sleeping. His works were compiled in a collection entitled 'The Works of Tsu Pe'.

Ta Yu Ch'an master Ta Yu of Kao An (高安) was the disciple of Chih Chang (智常) of Kuei Tsung Temple in the 9th century.

Tan Yuan Ch'an master Chen Ying ( 真應 ) of Tan Yuan Mountain was the disciple of Hui Chung ( 慧忠 ) of Nan Yang ( 南陽 ) in the 8th century.

Tai Chien Ch'an master of Tai Chien of Ching Liang ( 清涼 ) was the disciple of Fa Yen ( 法眼 ) in 10th century.

Taking Precepts see Morality.

Tamas Sanskrit word literally means darkness, the opposite of Radjas (陽).

Tantra Sanskrit word literally means supernatural formula of mystic or magical efficacy.

Tantrayana Also called Vajrayana. A school of esoteric Tibetan Buddhism. It emphsizes not only meditation but also the use of symbolic rites, gestures, postures, breathing, incantation, and other secret means.

Tao Hsin The fourth Patriarch of Ch'an sect in China. He died in 651-2 AD.

Tao Sui He was the tenth patriarch of Tien Tai Sect. He is considered a patriarch in Japan because he was the teacher of a Japanese monk Dengyo Daishi, who brought the Tien Tai teachings to Japan in 9th century.

Tao-an He was one of the greatest masters in China (312-385 A.D.). He established the first native Sangha system with the monastic rules including the garments for the monks. He was the one who insisted all the ordained monks to change the surname to "Shih" (釋), the first syllable of the name of Buddha's clan. He was also the first one who compiled the catalogues for all the translated Buddhist scripture by his time. His activities were important to the development of Chinese Buddhism.

Taoism A religion developed from a Chinese mystic philosophy.

Tara Bodhisattva It is one of the forms of Avalokitesvara produced from his eye. It also represents the female energy of the masculine Avalokitesvara. In Tantric Buddhism, it is one of the favorable deity for session of special meditation.

Tchanadra Prabha Bodhisattva A Bodhisattva as the former life of Shakyamuni Buddha, who cut off his head as an alms offering to Brahmans.

Tchaturdvipa Sanskrit word, sometimes written as Caturdvipa, literally means Four Continents of every universe, situated between Asvakarna and the Tchakravalas, and located on the four sides of Mount Sumeru (須彌山). Two small islands are attached to each continent. They are:
  1. Purvavideha in the east (東毘提洲) - Sanskrit word literally means continent of conquerors of the spirit. Semi-circular in shape, inhabited by semi-circular-faced beings.
  2. Djambudvipa in the south (南瞻部洲) - where the human beings live. Triangular in shape, inhabited by triangular-faced people.
  3. Godhanya or Aparagodana in the west (西牛賀洲) - Circular in shape, inhabited circular-faced people.
  4. Uttarakuru in the north (北俱盧洲) - Sanskrit word literally means superior continent. Square in shape, inhabited by square-faced people. Well off in living, no chance to learn and practice Buddhism.

See also Caturdvipa.

Tchatvari Samgraha Vastuni Sanskrit word literally means four methods of pacification, which is essential for the Bodhisattva to take across the sentient beings.
  1. Dana - almsgiving (布施)
  2. Priyavatchana - loving speech (愛語)
  3. Arthakriya - conduct and action that benefits other (利行)
  4. Samanarthata - co-operation with others (同事)

Teh Cheng Also called Teh Cheng of Hua Ting ( 華亭 ), the Dharma-successor of Yo Shan ( 藥山 ) and the teacher of Chia Shan ( 夾山 ). He was called the 'Boat Monk'.

Teh Shan Teh Shan, or Te Shan is the name of master Hsuan Chien (宣鑒) of Teh Shan Mountain. He was the Dharma successor of Lung Tan (龍潭) and the teacher of Hsueh Feng (雪峰). Hsueh-feng was later the ancestor of the Yun-men House of Ch'an. Teh Shan was represented as occasionally hitting the Ch'an practitioners by stick, in order to stop them from traditional or conventional thinking. He died in 865 AD when he was 84.

Teh Shao He was the State master Teh Shao of Tien Tai Mountain. He was the Dharma successor of Fa Yen ( 法眼 ) (founder of Fa Yen Sect), one of the five branches of Ch'an sect in China. He traveled to Korea, where the only copy of Chih-I ( 智顗 )'s work existed, copied and returned to China to revive the Tien Tai sect in China. He died in 972 when he was 82.

Ten Directions The ten directions are east, south, west, north, northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest, in addition to the nadir and the zenith, namely, up and down. Strictly speaking, there is not even one direction in Buddhism, as the earth is 'round', and all things in the worlds are transformed from a single source - the Tathagata Store.

Ten Behavioral Activities The ten behavioral activities of Bodhisattvas done for the benefits of others, which is the third ten stages in the 52 Bodhisattva's positions in cultivation. All matters related to material and love are subdued. They are:
  1. Joyful service ( 歡喜行 )
  2. Beneficial service ( 饒益行 )
  3. Never resenting ( 無嗔恨行 )
  4. Without limit ( 無盡行 )
  5. Never out of order ( 離癡亂行 )
  6. Appearing in ant form at will ( 善觀行 )
  7. Unimpeded ( 無著行 )
  8. Exalting the paramitas amongst all beings ( 尊重行 )
  9. Perfecting the Buddha's law by complete virtues ( 善法行 )
  10. Manifesting in all things the pure, final and true reality ( 真實行 )

Ten Dharma Realms also known as ten states of existence, which are
  1. Hell
  2. Ghost
  3. Animal
  4. Asura
  5. Man
  6. Deva
  7. Sravaka (Sound-Hearer Arhat)
  8. Praetyka-Buddha
  9. Bodhisattva
  10. Buddha

Each Dharma realm has its own characteristics, and its existence is attributed to the retribution of the beings. The lowest six realms (1-6) are known as the Six Paths or Six Realms. These six states of existence are subjected to birth and death, and then rebirth for many lives. The upper four realms are known as the Four Holy Realms. These four states of existence are beyond birth and death and liberated from the Samsara

For details, please refer to Part 2 of Buddhism In A Nutshell, which appeared in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Buddhist Door, March 1996.

Ten Doors to Discrimination The Hua-yen sect established them to explain a Sutra, so that a true and genuine understanding can be reached:
  1. The general explanation of the title ( 總釋名題 ).
  2. The causes and conditions for the arising of the teaching ( 起教因緣 ).
  3. The division in which the Sutra is included and the Vehicle to which it belongs ( 藏乘攝屬 ).
  4. The examination of the depth of the meaning and the principle ( 義理深淺 ).
  5. The expression of the teaching-substance ( 能詮教體 ).
  6. The identification of the appropriate individuals able to receive the teaching ( 所被機宜 ).
  7. The distinguishing of the penetration of the principle and its implications ( 宗趣通別 ).
  8. The determination of the time ( 說時前後 ).
  9. The history of the transmission and translation ( 歷明傳譯 ).
  10. The specific explanation of the meaning of the text ( 別解文義 ).

Tien-tai sect has a similar way to explain a Sutra, which is called the Five Esoteric Meanings or the Five Profound Meanings.

Ten Dwelling The ten stages in Bodhisattva wisdom, which are the second ten stages in the 52 Bodhisattva's positions in cultivation. Subsequent to the cultivation of the Ten Faith, the practitioner will enter the stream of sages. All false views on dwelling are cut off and all desires are subdued by Ten Dwellings. They are:
  1. The stage of setting objective ( 發心位 )
  2. The stage of clear understanding and mental control ( 治地位 )
  3. The stage of unobstructed cultivation ( 修行位 )
  4. The stage of acquiring the seed of Tathagata ( 生貴位 )
  5. The stage of perfect expedience ( 方便具足位 )
  6. The stage of the whole mind as Buddha's ( 正心位 )
  7. The stage of non-retrogression ( 不退位 )
  8. The stage of being Buddha's son ( 童真位 )
  9. The stage of being the prince of the law ( 法王子位 )
  10. The stage of Abhiseka ( 灌頂位 )

Ten Faith The ten grades of Bodhisattva's faith. They are also the first ten progressive stages in the 52 Bodhisattva's positions in cultivation. All false views are subdued by the Ten Faith. They are:
  1. Faith ( 信心 )
  2. Remembrance ( 念心 )
  3. Zeal ( 精進心 )
  4. Wisdom ( 慧心 )
  5. Concentration ( 定心 )
  6. Non-retrogression ( 不退心 )
  7. Protection of the Truth ( 護法心 )
  8. Reflexive power ( 迥向心 )
  9. Precept ( 戒心 )
  10. Vow ( 願心 )

Ten Fetters They are
  1. belief in permanent self or soul,
  2. doubt in correct path,
  3. belief that chanting, or rites and rituals lead one to Nirvana,
  4. lust or greed,
  5. hatred or aversion,
  6. greed for fine-material existence or immaterial existence,
  7. conceit or pride,
  8. sloth and torpor or sleepiness or dullness of mind,
  9. restlessness or agitation of mind,
  10. ignorance.

Ten Good Deeds The Ten Forms of Good Actions for layman, or Ten Wholesomeness.
  1. No killing
  2. No stealing
  3. No adultery
  4. No lying
  5. No slandering
  6. No harsh speech
  7. No idle talks
  8. No greed
  9. No hatred
  10. No illusion
It is essential for the rebirth in Deva realm.

Ten Great Disciples of Skakyamuni Buddha They are:

  1. Mahakasyapa in Sanskrit, Mahakassapa in Pali.   迦葉
    first in ascetism.
  2. Ananda   阿難
    first in having heard the words of Buddha.
  3. Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali.   舍利弗
    first in wisdom.
  4. Subhuti   須菩提
    first in expressing emptiness.
  5. Purna   富樓那
    first in explaining good law.
  6. Maudgalyayana in Sanskrit, Moggallana in Pali.   目犍連
    first in supernatural power.
  7. Katyayana   迦旃延
    first in preaching.
  8. Aniruddha in Sanskrit, Anuruddha in Pali.   阿那律
    first in the sharpness of his divine eyes.
  9. Upali   優波離密
    first in taking precepts.
  10. Rahula   羅候羅
    first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the law.

Ten Great King Vows The vows of Visvabhadra Bodhisattva:
  1. To worship and respect all Buddhas.
  2. To praise the Thus Come One.
  3. To practise offerings.
  4. To repent all karmic hindrance.
  5. To rejoice and follow merits and virtue.
  6. To request that the Dharma wheel be turned.
  7. To request that the Buddha remain in the world.
  8. To follow the Buddha's teachings.
  9. To live in accord with all living beings.
  10. To spread all merits and virtue.

Ten Meritorious Deeds The Ten Meritorious Deeds allow people to gain a happy and peaceful life as well as to develop knowledge and understanding. They are:
  1. Charity
  2. Morality / Taking Precepts
  3. Mental cultivation / Meditation
  4. Reverence or respect
  5. Services in helping others
  6. Transference of merits
  7. Rejoicing in the merits of others
  8. Preaching and teaching Dharma
  9. Listening the Dharma
  10. Straightening one's own views

Ten Offerings For the material there are ten kinds of offerings in Buddhism:
  1. incense
  2. flower
  3. lamp
  4. necklace
  5. jeweled parasols
  6. banners and canopies
  7. clothes
  8. fruit and food
  9. music
  10. joined palms

Ten Paramita see Paramita.

Ten Powers The Ten Powers of Buddha or Bodhisattva are the complete knowledge of
  1. what is right or wrong in every condition
  2. what is the karma of every being, past, present and future
  3. all stages of dhyana liberation and samadhi
  4. the powers and faculties of all beings
  5. the desires or moral directions of every being
  6. the actual condition of every individual
  7. the direction and consequence of all laws
  8. all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality
  9. the end of all beings and Nirvana
  10. the destruction of all illusion of every kind

Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism
  1. Kosa   俱舍宗
  2. Satyasiddhi   成實宗
  3. Madhyamika   三論宗
  4. Tien Tai   天台宗
  5. Hua Yen   華嚴宗
  6. Dharmalaksana   法相宗
  7. Vinaya   律宗
  8. Chan   禪宗
  9. Esoteric   密宗
  10. Pure Land   淨土宗

Ten Stages of Bodhisattva These are the ten stages of development of Bodhisattva depending on their merits and virtues:
  1. Pramudita (joy)   歡喜地   - job at having overcome the difficulties and sufferings, now entering on the path to Buddhahood
  2. Vimala (purity)   離垢地   - freedom from all possible defilement
  3. Prabhakari (enlightenment)   發光地   - stage of further enlightenment
  4. Arcismati (widsom)   焰慧地   - stage of glowing wisdom
  5. Sudurjaya (no difficulty)   極難勝地   - stage of mastering the utmost difficulties
  6. Abhimukhi (open way)   現前地   - the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity
  7. Duramgama (proceeding afar)   遠行地   - getting above ideas of self in order to save others
  8. Acala (unperturbed)   不動地   - attainment of being unperturbed
  9. Sadhumati (discriminatory wisdom)   善慧地   - the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessing the Ten Powers
  10. Dharma megha (law cloud)   法雲地   - attainment of the fertilizing powers of law cloud

Ten Titles of Buddha represent the characteristics of Buddha
  1. Tathagata   如來   - the Thus Come Ones
  2. Arhat   應供   - worthy of offerings
  3. Samyak-sambuddha   正偏知   - of proper and universal knowledge
  4. Vidyacarna-sampauna   明行足   - perfect in understanding and conduct
  5. Sugata   善逝   - skilful in leaving the world through liberation
  6. Lokavid   也間解   - perfect and complete understanding of all worldly Dharma
  7. Anuttara   無上士   - unsurpassed knights
  8. Purusa-damya-sarathi   調御大夫   - taming heroes
  9. Sasta deramanusyanam   天人師   - teachers of gods and people
  10. Buddha-lokanatha or Bhagaran   佛世尊   - Buddha, the World Honored Ones

Ten Transferences The fourth ten stages of the 52 Bodhisattva's positions in cultivation. All existence and love are subdued by Ten Transferences. They are:
  1. Transference of salvaging all sentient beings, yet detaching from any form of sentient being( 救護一切眾生、離眾生相迴向 )
  2. Transference of non-destruction ( 不壞迴向 )
  3. Transference of equalizing all Buddhas ( 等一切佛迴向 )
  4. Transference of reaching everywhere ( 至一切處迴向 )
  5. Transference of the store of boundless virtues (無盡功德藏迴向 )
  6. Transference of the good roots of equality and harmony ( 隨順平等善根迴向 )
  7. Transference of viewing all sentient beings in equality and harmony ( 隨順等觀一切眾生迴向 )
  8. Transference of the mark of True Suchness ( 真如相迴向 )
  9. Transference of the liberation without any tie nor attachment ( 無縛無著解脫迴向 )`
  10. Transference of equalizing the boundless Dharma-realm ( 等法界無量迴向 )

Ten Vehicles of Meditation Vehicles is the means to take living beings across from suffering to Nirvana. Though there are ten vehicles, there is only one teaching (Dharma), i.e., Inconceivable Virtues of the Self-mind, and the other nine are supplementary. According to Tien Tai Sect, the ten vehicles are:
  1. Meditation of Inconceivable Virtue of the Self-mind   -   highest order for superior roots
  2. Meditation of Real Bodhicitta
  3. Meditation of Expedient Dwelling of Mind
  4. Meditation of Breaking Universal Dharma
  5. Meditation of Penetrating through Obstructed Consciousness
  6. Meditation of Commissioning all Chapters of Paths
  7. Meditation of Confronting Delusion and Advocating Enlightenment
  8. Meditation of Understanding the Stages of Fruition
  9. Meditation of Calmness and Endurance
  10. Meditation of Non-attachment of Dharma

Ten Wholesomeness see Ten Good Deeds.

Theravada Thera, an elder; a fully ordained monk who has past ten rainy seasons. Theravada is the doctrine of the Theras, i.e. the teaching of Southern Buddhism. It is one of the traditional 18 sects of Hinayana Buddhism. This form of Buddhism emerged out of Mahinda's mission to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) during Ashoka's region. They are apparently very closely related to the orthodox Vibhajyavada doctrine of Ashoka's time and represent the sole remaining Hinayanist sect today. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in S.E. Asian countries, e.g. Thailand, Sri Lanka, etc. (see Mahayana).

The Third Council It was held in the 18th year of Asoka's reign in 250 B.C. at Pataliputra. It lasted nine months. About 150 scriptures/canons were fixed.

Thirty Stanzas on Mere Consciousness Thirty Stanzas on Mere Consciousness, or Vijnapti-matrata-trimsika in Sanskrit ( 三十唯識頌 ) - written by Vasubandhu. The first 24 stanzas are devoted to the special character (Svlakasana) of all Dharmas, the next two to the nature (Svabhava) of all Dharmas, the last four to the ten stages to Buddhahood.

Thirty-two Forms These are the physical marks of a Buddha
  1. Level feet
  2. thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet
  3. long slender fingers
  4. pliant hands and feet
  5. toes and fingers finely webbed
  6. full-sized heels
  7. arched insteps
  8. thigh like a royal stag
  9. hands reaching below the knees
  10. well-retracted male organ
  11. height and stretch of arms equal
  12. every hair-root dark coloured
  13. body hair graceful and curly
  14. golden-hued body
  15. a ten-foot halo around him
  16. soft smooth skin
  17. two soles, two palms, two shoulders and crown well rounded
  18. below the armpits well-filled
  19. lion-shaped body
  20. erect
  21. full shoulders
  22. forty teeth
  23. teeth white even and close
  24. the four canine teeth pure white
  25. lion-jawed
  26. salvia improving the taste of all food
  27. tongue long and broad
  28. voice deep and resonant
  29. eye deep blue
  30. eye lashes like a royal bull
  31. a white urna or curl between the eyebrows emitting light
  32. an usnisa or fleshy protuberance on the crown.

Three Bodies See also the Threefold Body of a Buddha.

According to Mahayana Buddhism, a Buddha has three bodies :

  1. Dharmakaya - Dharma Body or Truth Body. It is the everlasting and identical amongst all Buddhas. Its ultimate reality represents their awakened personality.
  2. Sambhogakaya - Retributon body or Enjoyment Body. It resides in heavenly realms and above. It is accessible to Bodhisattva and the sages only.
  3. Nirmankaya - Emanation Body or Transformation Body. It is the physical manifestation of a Buddha for teaching the ordinary beings.

Three Classifications Buddha shows that a person is nothing more than a combination of various elements which come together under suitable conditions. They are
  1. the Five Skandhas
  2. the Twelve Bases
  3. the Eighteen Fields

Three Cumulative Precepts Also known as Intermediate Precepts ( 通戒 ). It refers to the following three types of precepts leading us to the perfection in cultivating Buddhism:

  1. Precepts of rules and disciplines ( 攝律儀戒 ) - precepts that prevent us from doing evil, such as the Five Precepts, the Eight Precepts, the Ten Precepts.
  2. Precepts of morality ( 攝法戒 ) - Precepts that encourage us to do good for oneself.
  3. Precepts of mercy and kindness ( 攝眾生戒 ) - Precepts that are beneficial to other sentient being whom are salvaged and liberated from suffering.

See also 'Differentiated Precepts'.

Three Delusions In Tien Tai, three doubts in the mind of Bodhisattva, producing three delusions, i.e.,
  1. through things seen and thought   見思惑
  2. through the immense variety of duties in saving humans   塵沙惑
  3. through ignorance   無明惑

Three Dogmas They are the Dogma of Void, Unreal and Mean. See also Three Meditations of One Mind.

Three Enlightenments the three kinds of Enlightenment:
  1. Enlightenment for self
  2. Enlightenment for others
  3. Perfect enlightenment and accomplishment
The first is Arhat. The second is Bodhisattva. When all the three have been attained, the being becomes a Buddha.

Three Evil Paths They are the three lowest realms of the Nine Realms: hell, hungry ghost and animal.

Three Good Paths They are Man, Asura and Deva Paths.

Three Insights
  1. Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives (宿命明).
  2. Supernatural insight into future mortal conditions (天眼明).
  3. Nirvana insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome all passions and temptations (漏盡明).

Three Jewels Or the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha, which are the three essential components of Buddhism. They are the objects of veneration. Buddhists take refuge in them by pronouncing the threefold refuge formula, thus acknowledging themselves to be Buddhists.

Three Manifestation Potentials According to Fa-hsiang's doctrine, all sentient beings and non-sentient matters are manifestations of consciousnesses. The seeing portion is the ability to be conscious and aware, while the seen portion is the phenomena in the entire world. Both portions are the integrated manifestation of the eight consciousnesses. These eight consciousnesses can be classified into three groups with respect to its characteristic of manifestation of the object-domains ( 境 ). It is known as Three Manifestation Potentials.

  1. Primary Manifestation ( 初能變 ) -- also known as Ripening Manifestation ( 異熟能變 ). It refers to the 'seeds' in Alaya consciousness. When they come across the causal conditions that advance or enhance to a higher state, it will then manifest to object-domains.

  2. Secondary Manifestation ( 次能變 ) -- also known as Thinking Manifestation ( 思量能變 ). It refers to the Manas consciousness. Though the seeds are ripened to manifest, they must rely on the Manas consciousness to think and create a virtual 'self', so as to realize the 'existence' of the relative object-domains.

  3. Third Manifestation ( 第三能變 ) -- also known as Discriminative Manifestation ( 了別能變 ). It refers to the first six consciousnesses. All phenomena and object-domains (six dusts) can only be recognized and discriminated by the six sense organs. Just like sleeping, we are not aware of any 'existence' as our sense organs do not function.

Three Meditations of One Mind Also known as Three Inconceivable Meditations, which is one of the practices in Tien Tai Sect in China. According to Tien Tai, all existence in the universe consists of Three Dogmas (Truths), namely, Void, Unreal and Mean. These three Dogmas are co-existent and interactive, integrated and interrelated. If one can meditate this concept with the whole mind, it is call Three Meditations of One mind, or Inconceivable Profound Meditation.

Three Months of Pure Eating The three months are the 1st, 5th and 9th lunar month of the year. Similar to the six days of pure eating, one should not break the rules and violate the precepts as the gods are checking and recording.

Three Obstacles See Three Obstructions.

Three Obstructions Also called Three Obstacles. They are the obstructions that hinder the attainment of Buddhahood. When the Three Obstructions are cleared, the Three Virtues will be perfected. The Three Obstructions are:

  1. Affliction obstruction   -   e.g. due to Three Poisons, i.e. greed, hatred and stupidity.
  2. Karma obstruction   -   e.g. due to Five Offenses, and Ten Unwholesome Deeds, i.e. the Karma in the past.
  3. Retribution obstruction   -   e.g. the suffering retribution in Three Evil Paths.

Three Periods of Time That is the past, the present and the future.

Three Poisons or Three Roots
  1. Greed or wrong desire
  2. Hatred or anger
  3. Illusion or stupidity or ignorance
These are the source of all the passions and delusions.

Three Precepts The three sets of precepts in Buddhism:

  1. The Ten Precepts for the ordained Sramanera and Sramaneraka.
  2. The Eight Precepts for all Buddhists.
  3. The Five Precepts for the ordinary people, ie. Upasaka and Upasika.

Three Precious Ones See Three Jewels.

Three Realms Sanskrit word is Triloka. It is Buddhist metaphysical equivalence for the triple world of earth, atmosphere and heaven.
  1. Realm of Sensusous Desire (Sanskrit word is Kamadhatu) of sex and food. It includes the Six Heavens of Desire, the Human World and the Hells.
  2. Realm of Form (Sanskrit word is Rupaadhatu) of matter which is substantial and resistant. It is a semi-material conception. It is above the lust world and contains bodies, places and things, all mystic and wonderful. It consists of 18 heavens, including the Heavens of Four Zen (Sanskrit word is Brahmalokas).
  3. Realm of Formlessness (Sanskrit word is Arupadhatu) of pure spirit, where there are no bodies and matters to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived of in Four Stages/Places of Emptiness in the immaterial world. It has four heavens, in which the Sphere/heaven of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is the highest.

Three Reasonings Our mind consciousness, i.e. the sixth consciousness performs immediately three kinds of function of recognition and differentiation, based on the past experience.
  1. Immediate or direct reasoning ( 現量 ) from the manifest, such as the eyes apprehend and distinguish color and form, etc.
  2. Comparable reasoning or inference ( 比量 ), such as the inference of fire from smoke, which is a logical thinking based on the past experience and knowledge.
  3. No-inference reasoning ( 非量 ), which is purely an illusion in the sixth consciousness, like day dreaming, as there is no substantial matter nor phenomenon to be recognized. It is a characteristic of the sixth consciousness that it can imagine something from nothing.

Three Refuges Trisarana in Sanskrit. Being a Buddhist devotee, one has to take refuges to the Three Jewels, i.e. Buddha, Dharma and Sangha in a ritual ceremony administered by a venerable master.

Three Roots The three (evil) roots, i.e. desire, hate and stupidity. Another group is the three grades of good "roots" or abilities, i.e. superior, medium and inferior.

Three Seals Also known as Three Universal Truths.
  1. All phenomena are impermanent.
  2. All Dharma are not-self.
  3. The eternity is Nirvana.

It is called the seal because it is to certify whether it is the Buddha's teaching or not. Also see Four Seals.

Three Shastra They are
  1. Madhyamaka Shastra
  2. Dvadashamukha Shastra
  3. Shatika Shastra

All three were translated by Kumarajiva, on which the Three Shastra Sect bases its doctrines.

Three Studies or Three Vehicles of Learning
  1. Sila, i.e. taking Precepts
  2. Dhyana, i.e. concentration and meditation
  3. Prajna, i.e. wisdom
It is practiced by the Arhats.

Three Sufferings
  1. Feeling of suffering
  2. Feeling of happiness - suffering of decay
  3. Feeling of neither suffering nor happiness - suffering of the activity of the Five Skandhas.

Three Universal Characteristics The Three Universal Characteristics are connected with the existence. They are:
  1. All phenomena are impermanent.
  2. All Dharma are not-self.
  3. All sensations are suffering.

Three Universal Truths Also known as the Three Seals. Three Universal Truths are the basic teaching of Buddha, so that they are commonly used to attest Buddhism.

The Three Universal Truths are:

  1. All phenomena are impermanent, (i.e., Anicca in Sanskrit).
  2. All dharmas are non-self, (i.e., Anatta in Sanskrit).
  3. The eternity is Nirvana and stillness.

Three Vehicles They are the Two Vehicles, plus the Bodhisattva Vehicle, i.e. the Vehicles for Sravaka, Pratyeka Buddha, and the Bodhisattva are called the Three Vehicles.

Three Virtues The three virtues of power,
  1. the virtue, or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, i.e., the Dharmakaya   法身德
  2. the virtue of his Prajna, knowing all things in their reality   般若德
  3. the virtue of his freedom from all attachments and his sovereign liberty   解脫德

Three Wisdom There are three kinds of wisdom:
  1. Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha knowledge that all the Dharmas or laws are void and unreal   一切智
  2. Bodhisattva knowledge of all things in proper discrimination   道種智
  3. Buddha knowledge or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present and future.   一切種智

In Tien Tai Sect, the Three Wisdom is associated with the Three Dogmas of Void, Unreal and Mean.

Three Worlds See Three Realms.

Three Yugas Yuga is a Sanskrit word, which means 'period of time', namely the present, past and future.

Threefold Body of a Buddha They are
  1. Dharma body, i.e. Dharmakaya - its own essential nature, common to all Buddhas.
  2. Retribution body, i.e. Sambhogakaya - a body of bliss, which he receives for his own use and enjoyment.
  3. Response and transformation body, i.e. Nirmanatkaya - he can appear in any form whenever and wherever necessary for the sake of crossing over others.

The Threefold Nature of Dharmas The threefold nature of Dharmas are as follows:

  1. Dharma of sole imagination ( Parikalpita-laksana in Sanskrit ) ( 偏計執性 ) -- just like to see the shadow of a flax rope, and falsely believe it to be a snake. All Dharmas regarding good and evil, existence and emptiness, happiness and suffering, etc. have such characteristics.

  2. Dharma of dependence upon others ( Paratanra-laksana in Sanskrit ) ( 依他起性 ) -- just like to see the flax rope, but understand it is just a name given to the thing that it serves the function of a 'rope'. When the flax is used to make other thing, another name is given. A flax rope exists only in causal combination or under the designated conditions. It has no self-nature in existence, as it is not permanent and depends on other factors.

  3. Dharma of ultimate and perfect reality ( Parinispanna-laksana in Sanskrit ) ( 圓成實性 ) -- just like a flax rope. Flax is the raw material of the rope, so the nature of the rope is actually flax. Whatever you make with flax, the nature of the thing remains unchanged -- it is the flax. It is the substratum (so to speak) of all, and regarded as the real nature of Dharma, which is unconditioned.

The Threefold Object-Domains There are three different conditions of recognizing and differentiating the external matters and phenomena by the sixth consciousness, i.e. conscious mind, or Mano consciousness:

  1. The object-domain of nature ( 性境 ), or immediate perception. The object that has the original substance and presents it as it is, just as the five objects of the senses -- form, sound, small, taste and touch -- are perceived as they are. The first five and the eighth consciousnesses perceive the objects in this manner.

  2. The object-domain of mere shadow ( 獨影境 ), or imagination, or illusion. Literally, it means the shadow - image appears simply from one's own imagination and has no substantial existence. It is only the imaginative function of the mind consciousness.

  3. The object-domain with the original substance ( 帶質境 ), i.e. the conscious mind does not correctly perceive the objects as they are, though the object is substantially existent. It is a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the conscious mind. For example, when the Manas consciousness looks at the seeing portion of the Alaya consciousness, it considers that it is 'self', which is actually not. The seeing portion of Alaya consciousness has its own entity, but not perceived as it is by Manas consciousness.

Threefold Wisdom The three modes of attaining moral wisdom:

  1. wisdom from reading, hearing, instruction, etc. ( 聞慧 )
  2. wisdom from reflection, thinking, etc. ( 思慧 )
  3. wisdom from practice, cultivation, meditation, etc. ( 修慧 )

Thus I Have Heard It is commonly the first sentence of all Buddhist Sutras. It indicates that the words to follow are the Buddha's words. 'I' refers to Ananda, one of the disciples of Buddha Shakyamuni, who compiled all Buddhist Sutras. This statement fulfils the Realization of Faith or Belief, one of the Six Realizations ( 六成就 ) or Six Fulfillments, as required for all Sutras. See 'Six Realizations'.

There are four reasons to begin with the four words in all Sutras that the Buddha spoke:

  1. To put the doubts of the assembly to rest
  2. To honor the Buddha's instruction
  3. To resolve the assembly's disputes
  4. To distinguish Buddhist Sutras from the writings of other religions

Tien Huang Ch'an master Tao Wu ( 道悟 ) of Tien Huang Monastery was the disciple of Shih Tou ( 石頭 ) and the teacher of Lung Tan ( 龍潭 ). He died in 807 AD when he was 60.

Tien Lung Ch'an master Tien Lung of Hang Chou ( 杭州 ), disciple of Ta Mei ( 大梅 ) and the teacher of Chu Ti ( 俱胝 ). He died in the 9th century.

Tien Tai Sect One of the Ten Great Sect in Chinese Buddhism. It was initiated by Hui Man in the dynasty of Bei-Chai, and was promoted by Chi-Hai in Tsui Dynasty. Mainly based on Lotus Sutra, Tien Tai Sect explains all universal phenomena with Three Dogmas. For the practices, it emphasizes cutting off Three Delusions, thus establishes the method of Three Meditations of One Mind.

Transformation of Bliss Heaven One of the Six Desire Heavens; the first of the four heavens dwelling in the empty universe. The inhabitants of the Transformation of Bliss Heaven take pleasure in transformational creations.

Trayastrimsha Heaven Trayastrimsha is Sanskrit for 'Thirty-three' ( 三十三天 ), as this Heaven is made up of thirty-three heavens, eight each on the north, south, east and west sides of Mount Sumeru, with the thirty-third heaven located on Mount Sumeru's peak. It is the heaven above the Heaven of the Four Kings, and its lifespan of inhabitants is 1,000 years. One day and night in the Heaven is equivalent to 100 years on our Earth.

The Lord of the Heaven was a woman in the past. Once she saw a Buddha-image in a temple that had a leak in its roof. She resolved to repair it. She was a poor peasant, so she convinced 32 of her friends to join her resolve. It was the merit and virtue derived from cultivating this vow, which enabled those 33 people to be born in the heavens, and become rulers of the Heaven.

Treasury of the Proper Dharma Eye The mind seal Dharma door transmitted by the Buddhist Patriarchs through the generations.

The Treatise on the Establishment of Mere Consciousness The Treatise on the Establishment of Mere Consciousness, or Vijnapti-matrata-siddhi in Sanskrit ( 成唯識論 ) is the fundamental treatise of Fa-hsiang sect translated by the founder Master Hsuan-tsang ( 玄奘 ) who summarized the teachings of ten great Yogacara masters in India. It is regarded as the encyclopedia of Fa-hsiang sect. See also Vijnaptimatratasiddhi Shastra.

Triloka see Three Realms.

Trimsika It was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 1 fascicle.

Trinity of Western Paradise They are the Buddhas and the Great Bodhisattvas in Western Paradise (Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss):
  1. Amitabha
  2. Avalokitesvara (Kuan Yin)
  3. Mahasthamaprapta

Tripitaka Tripitaka in Sanskrit, Tipitaka in Pali.   The three parts of Pali canon, consisting of:
  1. Sutra-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Sutta-Pitaka (Pali), or the Sutra Basket - containing the entire , the sermons attributed to the Shakyamuni Buddha.
  2. Vinaya-Pitika (both Sanskrit and Pali), or the Ordinance Basket - containing the rules of monastic life.
  3. Abhidharma-Pitika (Sanskrit) or Abhidhamma-Pitaka (Pali), or Shastras, or the Treatise Basket - containing the doctrinal commentaries, philosophical and technical works, such as discourses, discussions, or treatises on the dogma, doctrines, etc.

True Suchness Bhutatathata in Sanskrit word. Bhuta means substance that exists; tathata means suchness, thusness, i.e. such is its nature. It is regarded as the absolute, ultimate source and character of all phenomena. It is the eternal, imperson, unchangeable reality behind all phenomena. Simply speaking, it is ALL.

There are many other terms to describe it, e.g. Buddha-nature, Self-nature Pure Mind, Dharmakaya (Dharma Body), Tathagata-garbha (Buddha-treasury), Reality (real mark), Dharma Realm, Dharma Nature, the Complete and Perfect real nature, etc.

Tsao Shan Ch'an master of Pen Chi (本寂) of Tsao Shan Mountain was the disciple of Tung Shan (洞山) and co-founder of Tsao Tung (曹洞) branch of Ch'an sect in China. He died in 901 AD.

Tsu Fang Ch'an master Tsu Fang was the leader of the Chang Ching ( 長慶 ) assembly. He was awakened after calling on Fa Yen ( 法眼 ) in the 10th century.

Tun Huang It was one of the most Buddhist centers in China over 1,000 years ago. It was also an important stage-post at he east end of the 'Silk Road' in Han Dynasty (206-220 AD). Thousands of cave-temples have been built since 366 AD, but only about 400 remain at present. There are numerous Buddhist sculptures and murals, paintings and other religious arts recording the glories of Buddhism in China.

Tusita Heaven The fourth devaloka in the Realm of Desire. The Tusita, or "contentment," Heaven, is divided into an inner and an outer court. The outer courtyard is subject to destruction by the Three Disasters, fire, water, and wind, which occur at the end of the Kalpas, but the inner courtyard is the Pure Land of Maitreya who like Shakyamuni and all Buddhas, is reborn there before descending to earth as the next Buddha in our world.

兜率陀天 / 兜率天
Twelve Bases The Six Internal Bases and the Six External Bases are together called the Twelve Bases. Base implies the meaning of germinating and nourishing. All mental activities are germinated and nourished from these Twelve Bases.

Twelve Divisions The Buddhist Canon is divided into Twelve Divisions. All twelve can be found within each Sutra. They are:
  1. Prose ( 長行 ) - Literally the 'long lines'.
  2. Repetitive Verses ( 重頌 ) - The verses re-phrase the meanings expressed in the prose section.
  3. Bestowal of Predictions ( 授記 ) - The statement made by the Buddha to predict those who will become a Buddha.
  4. Causes and Conditions ( 因緣 ) - it explains the causes and conditions that lie behind the speaking of various Dharmas.
  5. Analogies ( 譬喻 ) - Analogies are used to make clear the wonderful aspects of the Buddha Dharmas.
  6. Former Events ( 本事 ) - The events related to the former lives of Shakyamuni Buddha and various Bodhisattvas.
  7. Present Lives ( 本生 ) - The events related to the present lives of Shakyamuni Buddha and carious Bodhisattvas.
  8. Universality ( 方廣 ) - It refers to the universality of the Dharmas spoken.
  9. Previously Non-existent Dharmas ( 未曾有 ) - Dharma is spoken which has never been spoken before.
  10. Non-requested Dharma ( 自說 ) - Without any request, the Buddha himself emits light, moves the earth and speak the Dharmas.
  11. Unconnected Dharmas ( 孤起 / 諷誦 ) - It refers to the verses which express meanings that have no connection with the passages preceding or following.
  12. Discussions ( 論議 ) - it refers to the discussion and argument on a particular topic in Buddhist Dharma.

This is not to say that there are twelve volumes in the Buddhist Canon, but that every section of the Sutra text falls under one of these divisions.

Twelve Links of Dependent Origination see the Law of Dependent Origination.

Twelve Nidanas see the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.

Twelve Places see the Twelve Bases.

Twenty Sects of Hinayana See the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, plus the two originals, i.e. Mahasanghikah and Sthavirah called the Twenty Sects of Hinayana.

Two Baskets and Three Dharma Wheels The masters of San-lun Sect classified the Buddha's teaching into Two Baskets and Three Teachings.

The Two Baskets are:

  1. Sound-hearer Basket, i.e. Hinayana, such as Agama.
  2. Bodhisattva Basket, i.e. Mahayana, such as Avatamsaka Sutra.

The Three Teachings are:

  1. Fundamental Dharma Wheel ( 根本法輪 ) -- just after the Enlightenment of the Buddha, he preached for the Bodhisattva, i.e. Avatamasaka Sutra. It is the fundamental teaching of all Dharmas, thus the teaching of One Vehicle.
  2. Branch Dharma Wheel ( 枝末法輪 ) -- as it is difficult to understand the profound teaching of One Vehicle, Shakyamuni preached Agama, Prajna, Vaipulya teachings to his disciples. They are called branches as they are derived from the fundamental one.
  3. Conclusive Dharma Wheel ( 攝末歸本法輪 ) -- it refers to the preaching of the Lotus Sutra, in which it declares that Three Vehicles converge to One Buddha Vehicle.

Two Deaths Two Deaths refer to
  1. share-sectioned birth and death
  2. changed birth and death

Two Forms of Death
  1. Natural death of the life
  2. Death form external cause and conditions

Two Kinds of Birth and Death There are two kinds of birth and death, namely 'share-section birth and death' ( 分段生死 ) and 'change birth and death' ( 變易生死 ). The former one refers to the fact that a person has a certain share of years to live, and each person has a certain appearance. Every person has his own appearance. Ordinary people are subject to 'share-section birth and death'. However, for those Arhats who have ended the 'share-section birth and death', they are still subject to 'change birth and death', which refers to the birth and death of their thoughts. Thought after thought arises, thought after thought dies. Their thoughts flow on in continual succession. It should be noted that the cause of birth and death is ignorance ( 無明 ), and its conditions are karmic activities ( 業緣 ).

Two Obstacles Two Obstacles refer to
  1. the obstacle of afflictions
  2. the obstacle of what is known

Two Retributions These refer to Proper Retribution ( 正報 ) and Dependent Retribution ( 依報 ).

Two Sects of Hinayana It refers to the Sthaviravadin and Mahasanghika.

Two Vehicles Two Vehicles generally refer to Sravaka and Praetykabuddha.

Two Views In Buddhism, there are two views on No-self. 'Self' means the self-nature ( 自性 ).

Firstly, ordinary people do not understand the emptiness of the Five Skandhas, thus believe in the existence of independent and self-controlled 'self'. It is known as the view of being-self ( 人我見 ).

Similarly, ordinary people insist to have a real substratum and function for Dharmas, as they arise from the causal conditions. In reality, a Dharma has no self-nature. It is known as the view of Dharma-self ( 法我見 ).

Uddaka-Ramaputta Uddaka-ramaputta in Pali, Udraka-Ramaputra in Sanskrit. A sage under whom Shakyamuni studied meditation. The state reached by Uddaka-Ramaputta was that at which neither thought nor non-thought exists.

Udumbara Flower Udumbara flower blooms once every three thousand years, so it is rare and wonderful. It is used to describe how rare the occasion is.

優曇華 (花)
Ullambana Festival Ullambana is a Sanskrit word, which means 'Rescuing those who are hanging upside-down'. This refers to the extreme suffering of the ghosts in the hells who are tortured as one hanging upside-down would be. So the Ullambana is performed especially for releasing the suffering ghosts to enable them to be reborn in the heavens. The festival is held annually, a day upon which anyone can rescue his parents from seven lives past. It is the 15th day of the 7th month, which is the Day of the Buddha's Rejoicing ( 佛歡喜日 ), and the Sangha's Pravarana ( 僧自恣日 ).

Unconditioned / Non-created Dharmas Also known as Asamskrta dharma, which is anything not subject to the principle of cause and effect, nor law of dependent origination, i.e. conditions. It is the dharma beyond the worldly ones.

They have no independent entity in reality, so they are called Conditioned Dharmas. However, there are Dharmas that are independent of conditions, called Unconditioned Dharmas. They can be taken as the static nature of mind/consciousness.

There are 6 Dharmas in this kind, with reference to the Five Kinds of A Hundred Dharmas:

  1. Space ( 虛空無為 )
  2. Extinction obtained by knowledge ( 擇滅無為 )
  3. Extinction not by knowledge but by nature ( 非擇滅無為 )
  4. Extinction by a motionless state of heavenly meditation ( 不動滅無為 )
  5. Extinction by the stoppage of idea and sensation by an Arhat ( 想受無為 )
  6. True Suchness ( 真如無為 )

Unconditioned 'Without outflow', i.e. free of the three marks of greed, anger and delusion. Also known as transcendental. See also ' Conditioned'.

Upadhyaya Upadhyaya was originally the designation of those who teach only a part of Vedas in India. Later, Upashyaya signified the master of the ritual activities in the monasteries. Nowadays, it is a designation of the abbot of a monastery. Sometimes, it signifies simply a monk in China.

Upanichads One of the four types of Vedic literature in ancient India, which are basically Brahmanic philosophical texts. It is a sophisticated exposition of Indian philosophy and metaphysics about man and universe.

Upasthana Sanskrit word literally means dwelling, condition.

Uruvela A town in Magadha where Shakyamuni attained his enlightenment and Buddhahood in the woods along Nairanjana river.

Utkatukasana Sanskrit word means sitting cross-legged on the hams with the soles towards upwards, so that the body and mind remain still. It is regarded as the best posture in meditation.

Uttarasailah One of the Hinayana School, a branch of Mahasanghika. It was established in the third century, after the Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of Jetavana.

Vaibhasika A Hinayana school of the reality of all phenomena.

It is said that there were four branches of the Vaibhasika school, so called after the Vaibhasika Shastra.

  1. Sthavirah
  2. Sarvastivadah
  3. Vatsiputriyah
  4. Mahasanghika

The school adhered primarily to two Sarvastivadin texts, the Jnanaprasthana and Abhidharmavibbasa-shastra.

Vaipulya Sutras Literally means unlimited meaning (無量義). It is a class of Sutras expounded by the Buddha during a certain period in his life. See Five Periods and the Eight Teachings.

Vairocana Buddha Also written as Vairotchana. Literally means all illumining (遍照). Also called the Great Sun Tathagata (大日如來). It is regarded as the highest of the Trikaya (三界), corresponding to Dharma (法) in the Triratna (三寶). It is the Buddha characterized by essential Bodhi and absolute purity, He lives in the 4th Buddhakchetra as the first of the five Dhyana Buddhas. He is accompanied with the corresponding Dhyana Bodhisattva Samantabhadra (普賢菩薩). See also the Five Celestial Buddhas.

Vaisya Vaisya in Sanskrit, Vaishya in Pali.   The third of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.

Vajracchedika Paramita Sutra It is always abbreviated in Chinese as 金剛般若波羅蜜經, or simply 金剛經. There are several translated scripts in Chinese, namely:
  1. 1 fascicle, translated by Kumarajiva during 402-412 AD.
  2. 1 fascicle, translated by Bodhiruchi in 509 AD.
  3. 1 fascicle, translated by Paramartha during 558-569 AD.

Vajrayana Also called Tantrayana.

Varcha Vasana Also commonly called Summer Retreat. It is the duty of Sangha assembly in devotional exercises in a monastery during the rainy season in summer. In China, it is usually the period during the 16th of the fifth lunar month to the 15th of the ninth lunar month.

Varjabodhi Varjabodhi moved from South India to China by sea in the Tang Dynasty. He was a follower of Nagarjnana (龍智) to learn Tantric Buddhism and was asked by Guan Yin to preach in China. He translated about 30 scriptures.

Vast and Long Tongue one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus Sutra.

Vasubandhu Buddhist philosopher of 500 A.D. The 21st Buddhist patriach of Mahayana Buddhism. He was great Buddhist commentator in Hinayana, but was converted to Yogacara by his brother Asanga.

婆修盤頭 (世親菩薩)
Vatsiputriyas Vatsiputriyas in Sanskrit, Vajjiputtakas in Pali.   Hinayanist sect often linked with Sammatiyah, which broke from the orothodox Sarvastivada. The founder was Vatsa. They may be classified as Pudgalavadins, accepting the pudgala transmigrated, and rejecting the theory of the Five Skandhas (the Five Aggregates comprising personality). They were considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the self. That individual self is neither the same nor different from the Five Skandhas. The doctrine challenged the Dharma exposition by the Sarvastivadah. The school was later dividied into four:

Veda Bodhisattva A Bodhisattva worshipped as a general to protect the Dharma from destruction.

Vedana see Sensation or Five Skandhas.

Vedas Literally, it means knowledge. They are basic scriptures of Hinduism in India, composed between 2000 and 500 B.C. They consist of Rg-veda, Sama-veda, Yajur-veda and Atharva-veda. The collection is also known as the Vedic Samhita. Apart from Samhita, the Vedic literature regarded as Sruti were Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisads.

Vibhajyavada Literally means Distinctionist or Holders of the Doctrine of Distinctions. A sect of Hinayana Buddhism, said to be orthodox by the time of Ashoka's Council at Pataliputra (i.e. the Third Council). They were called as they made a distinction of phenomena in time into two categories; those that exist and those that do no.

The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this sect, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is said that this school was established to harmonize the difference between the Sthaviras and Mahasanghikas. The Abhidhamma Pitaka was the definite work of this school, thus they gained supremacy over the Sarvastivadins in the Third Council.

Vidhi A Sanskrit word which means the method employed in magic performance.

Vidjna Shastra Alsao written as Vijna Shastra. It is the works on the orthodox philosophy on logic and dialectics in Buddhism.

Vidjnana A Sanskrit word, also written as Vipnapti or Vijnana, which means consciousness literally.

Vidya A Sanskrit word literally means knowledge. It refers to the spell or Mantra of mystic knowledge.

Vigor the fourth Paramita, pure and unadulterated progress, i.e. zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the evil.

Vihara A Sanskrit word literally means dwelling of the Sangha.

Vijnaptimatratasiddhi Shastra Treatise on the Establishment of the Doctrine of Mere Consciousness was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 10 fascicles in 659 A.D.

Vimalakirti-Nivdesha Sutra Vimalakirti, a Sanskrit word, means undefiled and pure reputation. Vimalakirti was said to be a native of Vaisali, and an upasaka (not a monk) to assist Shakyamuni to preach and cross over the human beings. The Sutra is the record of interesting conversation between Vimalakirti and Manjusri Bodhisattva regarding the understanding of One Buddha Vehicle.

There are several translated scripts in Chinese with different titles, namely,

  1. 2 fascicles, translated by Chih-chien during 223-253 AD, called 維摩詰經.
  2. 3 fascicles, translated by Kumarajiva in 406 AD, called 維摩詰所說經.
  3. 6 fascicles, translated by Hsuan-tsang in 630 AD, called 說無垢稱經.

Vimsatika It was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 1 fascicle.

Vinaya School Emphasizes the monastic discipline founded by Tao Hsuan of the Tang Dynasty in China.

Vipasyana Sukhavativyuha Sutra It is one of the main sutra for Pure Land Sect. The Sutra indicates that the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha is one of the Buddha Lands. It also describes how to be born in the Pure Land through the Sixteen Contemplations. Therefore, the Sutra is also called "Sixteen Contemplations Sutra".

Vipasyana It refers to analytical meditation in which one directly perceives the emptiness of the object, and by extension, all phenomena. It aims at direct realization of the final nature. Usually, it is preceded by another meditative state Shamatha. See also 'Shamatha'.

Vipasyi Buddha Also written as Vipasyin Buddha. The first of the Seven Buddhas, and the 998th Buddha of the last Kalpa, i.e. Adornment Kalpa (莊嚴劫). See also Stapa Buddha.

Visvabhadra Bodhisattva As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the highest conduct. Visvabhadra, also known as Samantabhadra, means universal worthy. He is the lord of the fundamental law, the dhyana ( taking precepts) and the practice of all Buddhas. Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is often placed on the right of Shakyamuni, while Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is the left. He always rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sutra, and its devotees, and has close connection with Hua-yen Sutra. He has Ten Great King Vows, which give an excellent guideline to all Buddhists to practice and cultivate the Buddha Way.

Visvabhu Buddha Visvabhu is a Sanskrit word literally means apparition of various transformation, or all beings everywhere independent. He is the 1000th Buddha of the last Kalpa, i.e. Adornment Kalpa. He is also the third of the Seven Buddhas. See also Stapa Buddha.

Vivartta Kalpa That is Formation Kalpa, or called Production Kalpa. A period of 20 small Kalpas, which evolution begins.

Vivartta Siddha Kalpa That is the Stationary Kalpa, or called Dwelling Kalpa. A period of 20 small Kalpas succeeding the Vivartta Kalpa.

Volition or mental formation, or action, or conduct, or deed, usually done through the body, mouth or mind. The Sanskrit word is Samskara.

Vyasa Tathagata One of the seven Tathagatas, who is the the grandson of Brahma and the compiler of the Veda.

Vyuha Kalpa That is Adornment Kalpa. the last Kalpa as compared to the present Kalpa, Bhadra Kalpa (賢劫). See also Bhadrakalpa.

Vyuha Radja A Bodhisattva of the retinue of Shakyamuni Buddha.

Way Generally, it refers to the Way of Bodhi or enlightenment leading to Nirvana through spiritual stages, and even to Buddhahood through Bodhisattva's practices. Sometimes, it is also called the Path, the Road, the Truth, the Reason, the Logos, Cosmic Energy, etc., depending on different circumstances.

Wen Sui Ch'an master Wen Sui of Chiang Nan ( 江南 ) was the disciple of Fa Yen ( 法眼 ) in the 10th century.

Wheel-rolling King Cakkavatti-raja in Pali, Cakravarti-raja in Sanskrit.   Also known as Sagely Wheel-turning King. There are four such kings, each with a precious wheel of gold, silver, copper, and iron. The kings reign over the four areas in north, south, east and west. It is believed that the Gold-Wheel King is to come in perfection and unify the world. In Indian mythology, he is the ideal ruler.

The Winds of Eight Directions Or the Winds of Eight Directions. Most people are usually moved by the winds of the eight directions. They are:
  1. Praise ( 稱 )
  2. Ridicule ( 譏 )
  3. Suffering ( 苦 )
  4. Bliss ( 樂 )
  5. Benefit ( 利 )
  6. Destruction ( 衰 )
  7. Loss in Reputation ( 毀 )
  8. Gain in Reputation ( 譽 )

Wisdom the highest of Paramita; the virtue of wisdom as the principal means of attaining Nirvana. It connotes a knowledge of the illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice and heresy.

Wish-fulfilling Pearl Also known as the As-you-will Pearl. It is held by Earth Store Bodhisattva, and used by Guanyin Bodhisattva. Also, Wheel-turning Kings had used it to some extent. It can be cultivated and its functions perfected through benevolent, moral and unselfish practice.

Wooden Fish One of the ritual instruments used in temples. The wooden fish is one of the most important tools used in Chinese Buddhist to beat rhythm when chanting scriptures. This percussion instrument is made of a hollow wood block and is round in shape. The exterior of the wooden fish is etched in design with features that resemble the eyes, scales, and tail of a fish representing ever-present awareness and diligence. It is said that fishes don't close their eyes when sleeping to remind the chanting monks to be concentrated. The interior of the wooden fish is hollowed out so that when struck, it produces a dull wooden tone. A stick that has a small knob at one end is used to strike the wooden fish in a consistent rhythm during scriptural recitation. The beat of the wooden fish poises the mind and establishes a tempo so that an assembly of people can chant in unison. There are various sizes of the wooden fish that range from large to medium to miniature. A miniature wooden fish is used as a hand-held instrument when chanting while walking is in procession.

World Honoured One One of the titles of the Buddha. In Sutras, this is the respected title of Shakyamuni Buddha. See also Ten Titles of Buddha.

Wu Chu Also called Wen Hsi ( 文喜 ). He was an eminent Ch'an master, the disciple of Yang Shan ( 仰山 ). He died in 900 when he was 80.

Wu Kung Ch'an master Wu Kung of Tan Chou ( 潭州 ) was the disciple of Yun Chu ( 雲居 ) in the 10th century.

Yaksa The demons in the lower realm, like the Ghost Realm. They are evil, malignant and violent. They live on earth or in air.

Yama King of the hell.

Yana a Sanskrit word means vehicle. A term applied to Buddhism as a means by which a practitioner cultivates on the path to enlightenment. The different vehicles correspond to views of spiritual path, that differ as to the basic attitude of the practitioner and the means of making progress on the way. There are categories of one, two, three and five vehicles.

Yang Shan Also known as master Hui Chi ( 慧寂 ) of Yang Shan Mountain . He was the Dharma successor of Kuei Shan ( 溈山 ) and the co-founder of Kuei Yang ( 溈仰宗 ) branch of Ch'an sect in China. He died in 9th century.

Yasodhara the wife of Siddhartha Goutama. She later became a Bhikhuni.

Yen Kuan Master Chi An ( 濟安 ) of Yen Kuan. He was the Dharma-successor of Ma Tsu ( 馬祖 ) in the 8th century.

Yen Shou Also called Yen Shou of Yung Ming ( 永明 ) who was a famous Ch'an master, and the Dharma-successor of Teh Shao ( 德詔 ). He was said to be the avatar of Amitabha Buddha. He wrote the extensive collection "The Sect's Mirror", in which he linked all the seemingly contradictory Buddhist doctrines to one reality. He died in 975 when he was 72.

Yen Tou Master Chuan Huo (全豁) of Yen Tou, Dharma-successor of Teh Shan (德山). He was the one who inspired the final enlightenment of Hsuen Feng. He died in 887 AD when he was 60.

Yin Tsung Abbot of Fa Hsin Monastery in Quangzhou ( Canton ), who shaved the head of the Sixth Patriarch, Hui Neng ( 慧能 ).

Yo Shan Master Wei Yen ( 惟儼 ) of Yo Shan Mountain, Dharma-successor of Shih Tou ( 石頭 ) and the teacher of Yun Yen ( 雲嚴 ). He died in 834 AD when he was 84.

Yoga Bodhisattva Precepts They are supplementary precepts for those who wish to practice in Bodhisattva's conduct, as stipulated in Yogacaryabhumi Shastra. The shastra is regarded as the text for Fa-hsiang sect or Dharmalaksana Sect (i.e. all things of monad nature but differ in form, thus the noumenon will be reflected by specific characteristics, marks or criteria of all existence / phenomena), those precepts are also called Mahayana Dharmalaksana Precepts.

Yoga Literally means contemplation (觀), which is a state that the environment (境), practice (行) and the effect/result (果) are mutually responded in a corresponding manner. Sometimes, it refers to the similar response to the hand (Mudra), mouth (Tantra) and the mind (Yoga), which is regarded as a means of attaining spiritual and magic power.


See Dharmalaksana School.

法相宗 (唯識宗)
Yogachara Also written as Yogatcharya. It is a title honored to the one who has mastered the theory and the practice of ecstatic meditation, known as Yoga.

Yogacharabhumi Shastra A work by Asamgha. Also written as Yogatchatya Bhumi Shastra, which is one of the principal texts of Yogachara school. Treatise on the Stages of Yoga Practice was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 100 fascicles in 646-648 A.D. The Shastra is abbreviated in Chinese as 瑜伽論.

Yojana Indian measure of distance, about 10 miles. Also known as Yodjana. sometimes it is variably computed to be 33.3 miles or 5.5 miles, which is practically equivalent to a day's march by soldiers.

Yuan Miao Yuan Miao, an eminent Ch'an master in Sung Dynasty, was also called Yuan Miao of Kao Feng (高峰). He was the Dharma-successor of Yun Yen (雲嚴) and the master of Chung Feng (中峰). He died in 1295 AD at the age of 57.

Yun Chu Ch'an master Tao Ying ( 道膺 ) of Yun Chu Mounatin was the disciple of Tung Shan ( 洞山 ) in the 9th century.

Yun Men Master Wen Yen ( 文偃 ) of Yun Men Monastery, the founder of the Yun Men sect, one of the five branches of Ch'an sect in China.

Yun Yen Ch'an master Tan Sheng ( 曇晟 ) of Yun Yen was the disciple of Yo Shan ( 藥山 ) and teacher of Tung Shan ( 洞山 ). He died in 841 AD.

Yung Chia A Ch'an master Hsuan Chueh ( 玄覺 ) of Yung Chia attained enlightenment the day he called on the sixth patriarch Hui Neng ( 慧能 ) for instruction. He was called 'The Overnight Enlightened One'. He write the 'Yung Chia' collection and composed the famous 'Song pf Enlightenment', which was read all over the country and translated into Sanskrit later. He died in 712 AD.

Zazen A Japanese term in Zen Buddhism, which means 'sitting meditation'.

Zeal see Vigor.

Zen also called Chan; see Contemplation and Meditation.

Zendo A Japanese word which means Zen hall, or Zen Buddhist center.

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