Glossary

Akushala
Sanskrit word. It means bad Karma.

Almsgiving
see charity.

Amitabha
Sanskrit word, literally means boundless light and boundless life. He is the Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure Land), in which all beings enjoy unbounded happiness. Amitabha has forty-eight great vows to establish and adorn his Pure Land. People also recite or call upon his name by the time of dying will be born in the Land of Ultimate Bliss with the reception by Amitabha. Amitabha is one of the most popular and well-known Buddha in China.

Amitabha Sutra
One of the main sutra in Pure Land Sect. It is said to be the only sutra that Shakyamuni preached without being asked. For the sake of facillitating the living beings to practise and cultivate the Buddha way. Shakyamuni revealed and taught us of the simplest ways for liberation and enlightenment -- reciting Amitabha Buddha's name. By reciting the name, one can hope to be born in the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss. It is one of the most popular sutra recited by the Buddhists in China.

Annutara-samyak-sambodhi
Sanskrit word meaning unexcelled complete enlightenment, which is an attribute of every Buddha. It is the highest, correct and complete or universal knowledge or awareness, the perfect wisdom of a Buddha.

Arhat
There are two kinds of arhats, namely, the Sound-hearing arhat (Sravaka) and the Enlightened-to-condition arhat (Praetyka-Buddha). The former attains the wisdom to understand the Four Noble Truth, while the latter attains the wisdom to understand the Law of Dependent Origination or the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination. They represent two vehicles, who "comprehend for their own sake". As they pay attention to themselves and not to others, they are incapable of genuine and equal enlightenment.
There are four noble stages of fruition in the Arhat Path.

Avalokitesvara
Sanskrit word for the Bodhisattva who Hears the Sounds of the World. He rescues all beings by hearing their voices of suffering and cries for help. In Chinese, he is called Guan Shr Yin or Guan Yin Bodhisattva. As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the greatest compassion and mercy.
Guan Yin is one of the triad of Amitabha Buddha, represented on his left, and being the future Buddha in the Land of Ultimate Bliss (Pure Land) after Amitabha Buddha.
Guan Yin can transform into many different forms in order to cross over to the beings. Guan Yin is one of the most popular Bodhisattva in China.

Bhaisajyaguru
Sanskrit word, the Buddha of Medicine, who quells all diseases and lengthens life. His is the Buddha in the Pure Land of the Paradise of the East.

Bodhisattva
a Future Buddha who is a being destined to Buddhahood. Bodhi means Enlightenment and Sattva means Sentient and Conscious. Therefore Bodhisattva refers to the sentient being of or for the great wisdom and enlightenment. Bodhisattva's vow/aim is the pursuit of Buddhahood and the salvation of others and of all. He seeks enlightenment to enlighten others. He will sacrifice himself to save the others. He is devoid of egoism and devoted to help the others. The way and discipline of Bodhisattva is to benefit the self and the others, leading to Buddhahood.

Brahmin
the highest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They served Brahma, his offering, the keepers of the Vedas, i.e. priestly.

Buddha
means "the Enlightened One" or "the Awakened One".

Chan
also called Zen; see Contemplation and Meditation.

Charity
or almsgiving, the first Paramita. There are three kinds of charity in terms of goods, doctrines (Dharma) and courage (fearlessness). Out of the three, the merits and virtues of doctrines charity is the most surpassing. Charity done for no reward here and hereafter is called pure or unsullied, while the sullied charity is done for the purpose of personal benefits. In Buddhism, the merits and virtues of pure charity is the best.

Contemplation
abstract contemplation. There are four levels through which the mind frees itself from all subjects and objective hindrances and reaches a state of absolute indifference and annihilation of thought, perception, and will. See also Meditation.

Devine Eye
One of the Six Psychic Power and one of the Five Eyes. Unlimited vision, large and small, distant and near, the destiny of all beings in future rebirth. It may be obtained by human eyes through the practice of meditation/Samadhi.

Dhammapada
It is one of the most ancient sutra in Buddhism. It is a record of the quotations of Shakyamuni, which is comparatively easy to understand. It is so common that it is said to be the "Bible" of Buddhism. There are 26 chapters consisting of 423 quotations/statements.

Dharma
Sanskrit word, means law, truth, anything Buddhist. It is used in the sense of all things, visible or invisible.

Devotion
see Vigor.

Effort
see Vigor.

Eight Divisions of Gods and Dragons
Devas (gods), Nagas (Dragons) and others of eight divisions (classes): deva, nagas, yakas, ganharvas, asuras, gaudas, kinaras, mahoragas.

Eight Negations
The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of Madhyamika, are actually four pairs of neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going. This is one of the important concepts of the Middle Way, the ultimate truth of Buddhism and the reality character of all Dharma.

Eight Sufferings
(1) Suffering of Birth
(2) Suffering of Old Age
(3) Suffering of Sickness
(4) Suffering of Death
(5) Suffering of being apart from the loved ones
(6) Suffering being together with the despised ones
(7) Suffering of not getting what one wants
(8) Suffering of the flouishing of the Five Skandhas

Eight Winds
or the Winds of Eight Directions. Most people are usually moved by the winds of the eight directions:
(1) Praise
(2) Ridicule
(3) Suffering
(4) Happiness
(5) Benefit
(6) Destruction
(7) Gain
(8) Loss

Eighteen Different Characters
There are eighteen different characters of a Buddha as compared with all other beings in the Nine Realms.
  1. His perfection of body (or person)
  2. His perfection of mouth (or speech)
  3. His perfection of memory
  4. His perfection of impartiality to all
  5. Serenity
  6. Self-sacrifice
  7. Unceasing desire to save
  8. Unflagging zeal therein to save
  9. Unfailing thought thereto to save
  10. Unceasing wisdom to save
  11. Powers of deliverance
  12. The principle of the powers of deliverance
  13. Revealing perfect wisdom in deed
  14. Revealing perfect wisdom in word
  15. Revealing perfect wisdom in thought
  16. Perfect knowledge of the past
  17. Perfect knowledge of the future
  18. Perfect knowledge of the present

Eighteen Fields
The Six Consciousness and the Twelve Bases are together called the Eighteen Fields.

Eightfold Path
the eight right ways for the Arhat leading to Nirvana. The eight are:
(1) Right View
(2) Right Thought
(3) Right Speech
(4) Right Action
(5) Right Livelihood
(6) Right Effort
(7) Right Remembrance
(8) Right Concentration

Emptiness
The Sanskrit word is Sunya. One of the key concepts in Buddhism. Emptiness is an abstract idea representing impermanence, unreality, instability, transcience and relativity in the nature of all existence. The doctrine states that all phenomena and the ego have no reality, but are composed of a certain number of skandhas or elements, which disintegrate. The doctrine also states that everything is unstable, possessing no self-essence or self-nature, i.e., its own existence depdent or caused by the conditions of others' existence.
Emptiness is not nothing, but it is the condition of existence of everything. It permeates all phenomena making possible their evolution.

Endurance
see Patience.

Energy
see Vigor.

Enlightenment
"Enlightenment" sometimes refers to the attainment of Buddhahood, as the "Enlightened One" means Buddha. If one is enlightened, one has a complete and perfect understanding of the reality character of everything.

Evil Time of Five Turbidities
It refers to the time on Earth. The Five Turbidities are
(1) the Kalpa Turbidity
(2) the View Turbidity
(3) the Affliction Turbidity
(4) the Living Beings Turbidity
(5) the Life Turbidity

Five Basic Afflications
The five fundamental conditions of the passions and delusions:
  1. wrong view, which are common to the Trailokya
  2. clinging or attachment in the Desire Realm
  3. clinging or attachment in the Form Realm
  4. clinging or attachment in the Formless Realm
  5. the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in Trailokya, which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion.

Five Bhikshus
The first five of Buddha's converts: Ajnata-Kaundinya, Asvajit, Bhadrika, Dasabala-Kasyapa, and Mahanama-Kulika. They were the first five disciples that Shakyamuni preached when he became Buddha.

Five Categories of Untranslated Terms
Chinese T"ang Dynasty Master of the Tripitaka Hsuan-Tsang established five categories of words which should be left untranslated
  1. the esoteric
  2. words having multiple meanings
  3. words for things not existing in China
  4. words not translated in accord with already established precedent
  5. words left untranslated in order to give rise to wholesomeness and respect

Five Commandments
see Five Precepts.

Five Eyes
There are five classes of eyes:
1. human eye
2. devine eye
3. dharma eye
4. wisdom eye
5. Buddha eye

Five Forms of Decaying
When the devas are dying, there are five symptoms:
1. the flowers around the crown
2. the clothes being dirty
3. having unpleasant smell in the body
4. sweating in armpit
5. Being unhappy in seat

Five Offences
The five rebellious acts or deadly sins:
(1) parricide
(2) matricide
(3) killing an arhat
(4) shedding the blood of a Buddha
(5) destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity.

Five Precepts
or Five Commandments for layman
(1) No killing
(2) No stealing
(3) No sexual misconduct/adultery
(4) No lying
(5) No intoxicant

It is essential for the rebirth in human realms.

Five Skandhas
or Five Aggregates, that is, the five components of an intelligent beings, or psychological analysis of the mind:
  1. Matter or Form (Rupa) - the physical form responded to the five organs of senses, i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue and body
  2. Sensation or Feeling (vedana) - the feeling in reception of physical things by the senses through the mind
  3. Recognition or Conception (sanjna) - the functioning of mind in distinguishing and formulating the concept
  4. Volition or Mental Formation (samskara) - habitual action, i.e., a conditioned response to the object of experience, whether it is good or evil, you like or dislike
  5. Consciousness (vijnana) - the mental faculty in regard to perception, cognition and experience

Five Vehicles
The Five Vehicles converying to the karma-reward which differs according to the vehicle:
  1. Human Vehicle - rebirth among human conveyed by observing the Five Commandments (Five Precepts)
  2. Deva Vehicle - among the devas by the Ten Forms of Good Actions (Ten Wholesomeness)
  3. "Sound-Hearing" Arhat - among the sravakas by the Four Noble Truths
  4. "Enlightened by Conditions" Arhat - among the pratyeka-buddhas by the Twelve Nidanas
  5. Bodhisattva - among the Bodhisattvas by the Six Paramita

Flower Adornment Sutra
One of the most important sutra in Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism. There are many volumes in the Sutra. It describes the entire Buddha Realm which is, of course, not easy to visualize.

Four Aspects (of Buddhist Dharma)
(1) the teaching
(2) the principle
(3) the practice
(4) the fruit/reward/result

Four Fearlessness
There are four kinds of fearlessness, of which there are two groups:
  1. Buddha's fearlessness arises from
    1. his omniscience
    2. perfection of character
    3. overcoming opposition
    4. ending of suffering
  2. Bodhisattva's fearlessness arises from
    1. powers of memory
    2. power of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy
    3. power of ratiocination
    4. power of solving doubts

Four Fruition
also known as Four Phala. These are four grades of arhatship, namely
  1. Srota-aparnn
  2. Sakradagamin
  3. Angamin
  4. Arhan

Four Great Bodhisattva
They represent the four major characters of Bodhisattva:
  1. Manjusri - Universal Great Wisdom Bodhisattva
  2. Samantabhadra - Universal Worthy Great Conduct Bodhisattva
  3. Ksitigarbha - Earth TReasury King Great Vow Bodhisattva
  4. Avalokitesvara - Guan Shr Yin Great Compassion Bodhisattva

Four Great Elements
All matters are formed and are composed by four conditioned causes :
(1) earth, which is characterized by solidity and durability
(2) water, which is characterized by liquid/fluid and moisture
(3) fire, which is characterized by energy and warmth
(4) wind, which is characterized by gas/air movement

Four Holy Realms
They are Sravaka, Praetyka-Buddha, Bodhisattva, and Buddha.

Four Immeasurable Minds
see Four Unlimited Minds.

Four Noble Truths
It is the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni
  1. Doctrine of Suffering - suffering is a necessary attribute of sentient existence (Effect of Suffering)
  2. Doctrine of Accumulation - accumulation of suffering is caused by passions (Cause of Suffering)
  3. Doctrine of Extinction - extinction of passion (Effect of Happiness)
  4. Doctrine of Path - Path leading to the extinction of passion (Cause of Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path.
The first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two to the life outside and beyond this world.
The Four Noble Truths were first preached to Shakyamuni's five former ascetic companions.

Four Reliance (to learning Buddhist Dharma)
The four standards of Right Dharma which buddhist should rely on or abide by:
(1) to abide by the Dharma, not the person
(2) to abide by the sutras of ultimate truth, not the sutras of incomplete truth
(3) to abide by the meaning, not the word
(4) to abide by the wisdom, not the consciousness

Four Unlimited Mind
The mind of Bodhisattva:
1. Kindness
2. Compassion
3. Delight
4. Renunciation

Four Virtues
The four Nirvana virtues:
(1) Eternity or permanence
(2) Joy
(3) Personality
(4) Purity

These four important virtues are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental or nirvana-realm.

Four Ways (of learning Buddhist Dharma)
(1) Belief/faith
(2) Interpretation/discernment
(3) Practice/performance
(4) Verification/assurance

These are the cyclic process in learning a truth.

Fourfold Assembly
Or the Four Varga (groups) are bhiksu, bhiksuni, upasaka and upasika, i.e. monks, nuns, male and female devotees.

Giving
see charity.

Heavenly Eye
see Devine Eye.

Hinayana
also called Small Vehicle or Liberated Vehicle, which refers to Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha. It is a school of Buddhism, popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, hence also known as Southern Buddhism, in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahayana, the form mainly prevalent from Nepal to Japan.

Hinayana is sometimes described as self-benefiting, and Mahayana as self-benefiting for the benefit of others. Another difference is that Pali is the general literary language in Hinayana while Sanskrit of Mahayana.

Hinayana is nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha. For further details, please refer to Section 3-A A Glimpse in the Scope of Buddhism in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Buddhist Door.

Ignorance
Sanskrit word is Avidya. Literally, it means darkness without illumination. Actually it refers to illusion without englightenment, i.e., the illusory phenomena for realities. Avidya is the first or the last of the Twelve Nidanas. Ignorance, karma and desire are the three forces that cause reincarnation.

Karma
Sanskrit word meaning action, deed, moral duty, effect. Karma is moral action which causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also moral kernal in each being which survive death for further rebirth.

Ksatriya
the second of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling castes.

Kushala
Sanskrit word. It means good Karma.

Law of Dependent Organization
it states that all phenomenon arise depending upon a number of casual factors. In other word, it exists in condition that the other exist; it has in condition that others have; it extinguishes in condition that others extinguish; it has not in condition that others have not. For existence, there are twelve links in the chain:

Lotus Sutra
one of the most important sutra in Buddhism. Lotus flower is used to describe the brightness and pureness of the One Buddha Dharma.

Mahamaya
the mother of Shakyamuni. She was the Koliyan Princess and married to Suddhodana.

Mahayana
also called Great Vehicle or Bodhisattva Vehicle. It is a school of Buddhism prevalent in China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Tibet and other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism.

Mahayana is described as seeking Buddhahood and transforming beings, thus self-benefiting for the benefits of the others.

For further details, please refer to Section 3 A Glimpse in the Scope of Buddhism in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Budddhist Door.

Maitreya
Sanskrit word, literally means friendly and benevolent. He will be the next Buddha in our world. He is now preaching in Tusita Heaven. He is usually represented as the fat laughing Buddha.

Manjuri Bodhisattva
As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the greatest wisdom. Manjuri is said to have: wonderful head, universal head, glossy head, revered head, wonderful virtue and wonderfully auspicious. Manjuri, the guardian of wisdom, is often placed on the left of Shakyamuni, while Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is on the right. Manjuri always rides on a lion. He is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Shakyamuni. He is the Chief of the Bodhisattva, and the chief disciple of the Buddha. He is the object for the pilgrimages visiting the Wu Tai Shan of Shansi Province in China.

Mantra
The Sanskrit word is Dharani, i.e. esoteric incantation. It is a treatise with mystical meaning, and is regarded as every word and deed of a Bodhisattva. It is one of the most popular method of cultivation in Buddhism, especially in Shingon or "True Word" sect.

Matter
Or Form or Thing. The Sanskrit word is Rupa. It is defined as that which has resistence, or which changes and disappear, i.e., the phenomenal. There are inner and outer forms representing the organs and objects of sense respectively.
Rupa is one of the Six Bahya-ayatanna or Six Gunas and also one of the Five Skandhas.

Meditation
the fifth Paramita. There are numerous methods and subjects of meditation. See also Contemplation.

Middle Path
See Middle Way.

Middle Way
It denotes the mean between two extremes, particularly between realism and nihilism, eternal substantial existence and annihilation. This doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence in the interest of a middle way. This is the utlimate truth of Buddhism, and the reality character of all Buddha. See also Eight Negations.

Morality
the second Paramita, to take precepts and to keep the moral laws.

Nine Realms
The nine realms of error, or subjection to passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm. The nine realms are

Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers
Or Nine Grades, Classes of Lotus Flowers, i.e. upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, upper medium, middle medium, lower medium, upper inferior, middle inferior and lower inferior, which represent ninefold future life into Pure Land. The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitabha, the consequent aeons that are required to approach Amitabha, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.

Nirvana
completely liberated from existence, absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual existence. Nirvana is not death, but is rebirth.

Paramita
It means to cross over from this shore of births and deaths to the other shore which is the Nirvana.

The Six Paramita or means of so doings are
(1) dana - charity/giving
(2) sila - moral/conduct/taking precepts
(3) ksanti - patience
(4) virya - vigor/devotion/energy
(5) dhyana - contemplation/meditation
(6) prajna - wisdom.

The Ten Paramita are the above plus
(7) upaya - use of expedient or proper means
(8) pranidhana - vow of bodhi and helpfulness
(9) bala - strength
(10) intelligence

Childers gives the list of ten as the perfect exercise of Each of the ten is divided into ordinary, superior and unlimited perfection, making up to thirty in total.

Patience
endurance, the third Paramita. There are groups of two, three, four, five, six, ten and fourteen, indicating various forms of patience, equanimity, repression, forbearance, both in mundane and spiritual things. Patience refers to bearing insult and distress without resentment.

Praetyka-Buddha
the second stage in Hinayana, the first or initial being that of Sravaka. He is enlightened to the conditions, i.e. the Law of Dependent Origination. He seeks enlightenment for himself and understands deeply Nidanas. He attains his enlightenment alone, independently, or a teacher, and with the object of attaining Nirvana and his own salvation rather than that of others.

Prajna
There are three kinds of Prajna:
(1) Prajna of languages
(2) Prajna of contemplative illumination
(3) prajna of the characteristics of actuality

The last one is the ultimate wisdom, which is the wisdom of Buddha. Also see wisdom.

Pure Land
generally refers to the Paradise of the West, presided over by Amitabha. Also known as the Land of Ultimate Bliss. Other Buddhas have their own Pure Lands. The Pure-Land Sect whose chief tenet is salvation by faith in Amitabha; it is the popular cult in China and Japan.

Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss
This is the Buddha Land of Amitabha Buddha. In Amitabha Sutra, there is full description about this Pure Land. This is the world of utmost joy without suffering. With the spiritual power of Amitabha Buddha, all beings in this world will understand Buddhism easily and practise diligently, and attain enlightenment eventually. Therefore by reciting Amitabha Buddha's name, Buddhist followers hope that they will be born in this Pure Land after their lives on earth. See also Nine Stages of Lotus Flowers.

Rahula
He was one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni. He was the first in esoteric practices and in desire for instruction in the Law. He was also the son of Shakyamuni.

Raksa
living in the Ghost Path. Like Yaksa, they are evil and violent, but inferior to Yaksa.

Realm of Form
see Three Realms.

Realm of Formlessness
see Three Realms.

Realm of Sensuous Desire
see Three Realms.

Recognition
or Conception or Thinking. The Sanskirt word is Sanjna. It is the function of mind. It may lead to desire. One of the Five Skandhas.

Renunciation
One of the Four Unlimited Mind. As one of the chief Buddhist virtues, renunciation leads to a state of "undifferent without pleasure or pain". It is also an equality in mind with no distinction of self and others.

Right Action
the fourth of the Eightfold Path; respect for life (do not kill), property (do not steal) and personal relationship (no sexual misconduct) so as to purify one's mind and body.

Right Concentration
right abstraction, the eighth of the Eightfold Path; meditation, focusing the mind without distraction, preparing the mind to attain wisdom.

Right Effort
right zeal or progress, unintermitting perseverance, suppressing the rising of evil states and stimulating good states, and to perfect those which have come to beings.

Right Livelihood
the fifth of the Eightfold Path; right life, abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. Five kinds of livelihood are discouraged : trading in animals for slaughter, dealing in weapons, dealing in slaves, dealing in poison and dealing in intoxicants.

Right Remembrance
right memory, right mindfulness; the seventh of the Eightfold Path, avoiding distracted and clouded state of mind, awareness and self-possessed.

Right Speech
the third of Eightfold Path, abstaining from lying, slander/back biting, abuse/harsh words and idle talk.

Right Thought
right thought and intent; avoiding desire and ill-will; the second of the Eightfold Path.

Right Understanding
see Right View.

Right View
understanding the Four Noble Truths; the first of the Eightfold Path.

Rupa
see Matter or Five Skandhas.

Saha Land
It refers to the land on Earth. Saha interprets as bearing and enduring. Saha Land is contrary to Pure Land.

Samadhi
Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation.

Samsara
Sanskrit word meaning turning of the wheel or revolving. It refers to the transmigration in the Six Directions of Reincarnation.

Samskara
see Volition or Five Skandhas.

Sanjna
see Recognition or Five Skandhas.

Sariputra
One of the principal disciples of Shakyamuni, noted for his wisdom and learning. He was also the right-hand attendant on Shakyamuni. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is represented as standing with Maudgalyayana by the Buddha when entering Nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha.

Sensation
or Feeling. The Sanskrit word is Vedana. One of the Five Skandhas. See Five Skandhas.

Shakyamuni
the founder of Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was called Siddhartha Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the called Shakyamuni. The word means "capability and kindness".

Siddhartha Goutama
the Sanskrit word of Siddhartha, the name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name means "wish fulfilled".

Six Consciousness
They are the perceptions and the discriminative ability of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

Six Directions of Reincarnation
(1) Naraka, i.e. Hell
(2) Presta, i.e. Hungry Ghost
(3) Tiryagyoni, i.e. Animal
(4) Asura, i.e. Malevolent nature spirits
(5) Manusya, i.e. Human Existence
(6) Deva, i.e. Heavenly Existence

Six Dusts
see Six Gunas.

Six Entrances
see Six Places and Six Indriyas.

Six External Bases
see Six Gunas.

Six Fields of Senses
see Six Gunas.

Six Gunas
or Six External Bases, or Six Dusts. They are sight, sound, scent/smell, taste, tangibles/touch and dharma/idea. They are the qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense.

Six Heavens of Desire
see Three Realms.

Six Indriyas
or Six Internal Bases, or Six Sense-organs, or Six Places. They are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

Six Internal Bases
see Six Indriyas.

Six Paramita
see Paramita.

Six Paths
see Six Directions of Reincarnation.
Six Periods of Day and Night
Six periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning, noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn.

Six Places
Sanskrit word is Sadayatana. See Six Indriyas.

Six Psychic Power
(1) the phychic power of the heavenly eye
(2) the psychic power of the heavenly ear
(3) phychic power with regard to post lives
(4) phychic power with regard to the minds
(5) the spiritually based psychic powers
(6) the psychic power of the extinction of outflows

Six Roots
see Six Sense-organs.

Six Sense-organs
see Six Indriyas.

Six States of Existence
see Six Directions of Reincarnation.

Sixteen Contemplations
see Vipasyana Sukhavativyha Sutra.

Sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception
the highest heaven of the four "sphere of no-thing".

Sphere of no-thing
the heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of the mind in contemplation, being four in number of which the "sphere of neither-perception-nor-nonperception" is the highest.

Spiritual Ghost
living in the Ghost Path. They are kind dwelling in the nature, e.g. trees, mountain and sea protecting the creatures.

Sravaka
the first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second being that of Praetyka-Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word, means a hearer. It generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble Truth in entering Nirvana.

Suddhodana
Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.

Sudra
the lowest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and serfs.

Sukhavativyuha Sutra
It is one of the main Sutras for Pure Land Sect. It stipulates the Forty-eight Vows of Amitabha Buddha, which ive rise to the characteristic of the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss in the West.

Sutra
It is a "path" necessarily passed through in the cultivation of the Way.

Taking Precepts
see Morality.

Ten Directions
the ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir and zenith. There is a Buddha in each direction.

Ten Good Deeds
The Ten Forms of Good Actions for layman, or Ten Wholesomeness.
  1. No killing
  2. No stealing
  3. No adultery
  4. No lying
  5. No slandering
  6. No harsh speech
  7. No idle talks
  8. No greed
  9. No hatred
  10. No illusion
It is essential for the rebirth in Deva realm.

Ten Great King Vows
The vows of Visvabhadra Bodhisattva:
  1. To worship and respect all Buddhas.
  2. To praise the Thus Come One.
  3. To practise offerings.
  4. To repent all karmic hindrance.
  5. To rejoice and follow merits and virtue.
  6. To request that the Dharma wheel be turned.
  7. To request that the Buddha remain in the world.
  8. To follow the Buddha's teachings.
  9. To live in accord with all living beings.
  10. To spread all merits and virtue.

Ten Meritorious Deeds
The Ten Meritorious Deeds allow people to gain a happy and peaceful life as well as to develop knowledge and understanding. They are:
  1. Charity
  2. Morality / Taking Precepts
  3. Mental cultivation / Meditation
  4. Reverence or respect
  5. Services in helping others
  6. Transference of merits
  7. Rejoicing in the merits of others
  8. Preaching and teaching Dharma
  9. Listening the Dharma
  10. Straightening one's own views

Ten Paramita
see Paramita.

Ten Powers
The Ten Powers of Buddha or Bodhisattva are the complete knowledge of
  1. what is right or wrong in every condition
  2. what is the karma of every being, past, present and future
  3. all stages of dhyana liberation and samadhi
  4. the powers and faculties of all beings
  5. the desires or moral directions of every being
  6. the actual condition of every individual
  7. the direction and consequence of all laws
  8. all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality
  9. the end of all beings and Nirvana
  10. the destruction of all illusion of every kind

Ten Stages of Bodhisattva
These are the ten stages of development of Bodhisattva depending on their merits and virtues:
  1. Pramudita (joy) - job at having overcome the difficulties and sufferings, now entering on the path to Buddhahood
  2. Vimala (purity) - freedom from all possible defilement
  3. Prabhakari (enlightenment) - stage of further enlightenment
  4. Arcismati (widsom) - stage of glowing wisdom
  5. Sudurjaya (no difficulty) - stage of mastering the utmost difficulties
  6. Abhimukhi (open way) - the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity
  7. Duramgama (proceeding afar) - getting above ideas of self in order to save others
  8. Acala (unperturbed) - attainment of being unperturbed
  9. Sadhumati (discriminatory wisdom) - the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessing the Ten Powers
  10. Dharma megha (law cloud) - attainment of the fertilizing powers of law cloud

Ten Titles of Buddha
represent the characteristics of Buddha
  1. Tathagata - the Thus Come Ones
  2. Arhat - worthy of offerings
  3. Samyak-sambuddha - of proper and universal knowledge
  4. Vidyacarna-sampauna - perfect in understanding and conduct
  5. Sugata - skilful in leaving the world through liberation
  6. Lokavid - perfect and complete understanding of all worldly Dharma
  7. Anuttara - unsurpassed knights
  8. Purusa-damya-sarathi - taming heroes
  9. Sasta deramanusyanam - teachers of gods and people
  10. Buddha-lokanatha or Bhagaran - Buddha, the World Honored Ones

Ten Wholesomeness
see Ten Good Deeds.

Three Classifications
Buddha shows that a person is nothing more than a combination of various elements which come together under suitable conditions. They are
  1. the Five Skandhas
  2. the Twelve Bases
  3. the Eighteen Fields

Three Enlightenments
the three kinds of Enlightenment
  1. Enlightenment for self
  2. Enlightenment for others
  3. Perfect enlightenment and accomplishment
The first is Arhat. The second is Bodhisattva. When all the three have been attained, the being becomes a Buddha.

Three Evil Paths
They are the three lowest realms of the Nine Realms: hell, hungry ghost and animal.

Three Good Paths
They are Man, Asura and Deva Paths.

Three Jewels
Or the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

Three Obstacles
  1. the karmic obstacle
  2. the affliction obstacle
  3. the retribution obstacle
When the Three Obstacles are cleared and dissolved, the Three Virtues will be perfected.

Three Poisons
or Three Roots
  1. Greed or wrong desire
  2. Hatred or anger
  3. Illusion or stupidity or ignorance
These are the source of all the passions and delusions.

Three Realms
Sanskrit word is Trailokya. It is Buddhist metaphysical equivalence for the triple world of earth, atmosphere and heaven.
  1. Realm of Sensusous Desire (Sanskrit word is Kamadhatu) of sex and food. It includes the Six Hevens of Desire, the Human World and the Hells.
  2. Realm of Form (Sanskrit word is Rupaadhatu) of matter which is substantial and resistant. It includes the Heavens of Four Zen (Sanskrit word is Brahmalokas).
  3. Realm of Formlessness (Sanskrit word is Arupadhatu) of pure spirit, where there are no bodies and matters to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is conceived of in Four Stages/Places of Emptiness in the immaterial world.

Three Roots
The three (evil) roots, i.e. desire, hate and stupidity. Another group is the three grades of good "roots" or abilities, i.e. superior, medium and inferior.

Three Studies
or Three Vehicles of Learning
  1. Sila, i.e. taking Precepts
  2. Dhyana, i.e. concentration and medition
  3. Prajna, i.e. wisdom
It is practiced by the Arhats.

Three Sufferings
  1. Feeling of suffering
  2. Feeling of happiness - suffering of decay
  3. Feeling of neither suffering nor happiness - suffering of the activity of the Five Skandhas.

Three Virtues
  1. the virtue of liberation
  2. the virtue of prajna
  3. the virtue of Dharma-body

Trailokya
see Three Realms.

Tripitaka
It is a Sanskrit word meaning Three Treasures:
  1. Sutra Pitika - the sermons attributed to the Shakyamuni Buddha.
  2. Vinaya Pitika - the discipline in practice to act according to the rules and regulations.
  3. Abhidharma Pitika - the philosophical work, such as discourses, discussions, or treatises on the dogma, doctrines, etc. of Buddhism.

Twelve Bases
The Six Internal Bases and the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination
see the Law of Dependent Origination.

Twelve Nidanas
see the Twelve Links of Dependent Origination.

Twelve Places
see the Twelve Bases.

Two Forms of Death
  1. Natural death of the life
  2. Death form external cause and conditions

Vaisya
the third of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.

Vast and Long Tongue
one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus Sutra.

Vedana
see Sensation or Five Skandhas.

Vigor
the fourth Paramita, pure and unadulterated progress, i.e. zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the evil.

Vimalakirti-Nivdesa Sutra
Vimalakirti, a Sanskrit word, means undefiled and pure reputation. Vimalakirti was said to be a native of Vaisali, and an upasaka (not a monk) to assist Shakyamuni to preach and cross over the human beings. The Sutra is the record of interesting conversation between Vimalakirti and Manjuri Bodhisattva regarding the understanding of One Buddha Vehicle.

Vipasyana Sukhavativyuha Sutra
It is one of the main sutra for Pure Land Sect. The Sutra indicates that the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha is one of the Buddha Lands. It also describes how to be born in the Pure Land through the Sixteen Contemplations. Therefore, the Sutra is also called "Sixteen Contemplations Sutra".

Visvabhadra Bodhisattva
As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the highest conduct. Visvabhadra, also known as Samantabhadra, means universal worthy. He is the lord of the fundamental law, the dhyana (taking precepts) and the practice of all Buddhas. Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is often placed on the right of Shakyamuni, while Manjuri, the guardian of wisdom, is the left, He always rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sutra, and its devotees, and has close connection with Hua-yen Sutra. He has Ten Great King Vows, which give an excellent guideline to all Buddhists to practise and cultivate the Buddha Way.

Volition
or mental formation, or action, or conduct, or deed, usually done through the body, mouth or mind. The Sanskrit word is Samskara.

Dharma-wheel
See Wheel of Law.

Wheel of Law
The Buddha-truth which is able to crush all evil, and which rolls on from man to man, place to place and age to age. To turn the wheel means to preach Buddha-truth.

Wisdom
the highest of Paramita; the virtue of wisdom as the principal means of attaining Nirvana. It connotes a knowledge of the illusory character of everything earthly, and destroys error, ignorance, prejudice and heresy.

Yaksa
The demons in the lower realm, like the Ghost Realm. They are evil, malignant and violent. They live on earth or in air.

Yasodhara
the wife of Siddhartha Goutama.

Zeal
see Vigor.

Zen
also called Chan; see Contemplation and Meditation.



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