- Saddharmapundarika Sutra
- The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra in Sanskrit. "Sad" means
wonderful, and "Pundarika" means white lotus flower.
- Sagely Wheel-turning King
- He is referred to a Buddha as universal spiritual king with all kinds of
good marks and appearance, or a god over a universe, or a preacher of the
supreme doctrine. The wheel is probably a symbol of the sun with its myraid
- Saha Land
- Also called the Saha World. It refers to the land on Earth.
Saha interprets as bearing and enduring. Saha Land is contrary to Pure Land. It is a place of good and evil.
A universe where all are subjected to transmigration and in which a Buddha
- A Sanskrit word means one who returns once. It is the
certification of the second fruit of Arhatship. Being a Sakrdagamin, he returns
once - once to heaven and once among men before he cuts off the last three
categories of his delusions in thought in the Desire Realm.
- Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation.
- A Pali word, Sramana in Sanskrit. One who practices austerities; an
- Samantabhadra Bodhisattva
- Also called Visvabhadra Bodhisattva,
Universally Worthy Bodhisattva. Being one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas, he is the
Bodhisattva of Great Conduct, representing the Law. He has Ten
Great King Vows, which are the guidelines in practising Buddhism, and
cultivating the Buddhist Way.
- One of four types of Vedic literature in
ancient India. It consists of four sections, including poems, songs, rituals,
- life & health;
- Sama-veda - ritual & worship;
- Yajur-veda - war study;
- Atharva-veda - mandra & poems.
The four is know as Four Vedas.
- One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah. It is a school of correct
measures, or correct evaluation, formed about 300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. It was classified in the
Pudgalavadin category, thus often linked with Vatsiputriyah.
- Sanskrit word meaning turning of the wheel or revolving. It refers to the
transmigration in the Six Directions of Reincarnation,
the realm of birth and death.
- See Volition or Five Skandhas.
- The Buddhist monastic order. The corporate assembly of at least 3 monks
under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution and ordain.
In general terms, it refers to any community practising the Buddhist Way.
- See Recognition or Five Skandhas.
- See Sautrantika.
- One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of
Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.
- Brahma letters. The classical Aryan
language of ancient India, systematized by scholars. With the exception of a
few ancient translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original
texts in Buddhism used in China were Sanskrit.
- Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali. He was born in a Brahman family near Rajagaha. At the age of 17, he mastered all Vedic doctrines. In seeking a good teacher, he
studied under one of the six great non-Buddhist teachers called Sanjaya. He
met Shakyamuni with the aid of Assaji, one of the Five Bhiksus. He then became one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni, noted for
his wisdom and learning. He was also the right-hand attendant on Shakyamuni.
He died before Shakyamuni entered Nirvana.
He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is represented as standing with
Maudgalyayana by the Buddha when entering Nirvana. He is to
reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha.
- One of the early Hinayana sects, said
to be formed about 200-300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. A branch of the Vaibhasika claiming Rahula as founder. A school of reality of all
phenomena asserting the doctrine that all things are real.
The subdivision of Sarvastivadah was complicated and doubtful. In the list of
the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into account
to be one sect, as it split into all the remaining sects.
Also known as Hetavadinah.
- Satyasiddhi School
- One of the Ten Schools of Chinese
Buddhism. Founded on the Satyasiddhi
Shastra by Harivarman.
- Satyasiddhi Shastra
- Written by Harivarman and translated by Kumarajiva, on which the
Satyasiddhi Sect bases its doctrine. It was a Hinayana variation of the Sunya (emptiness) doctrine. The term is defined
as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the Sutras.
- Sutravada in Sanskrit, Suttavada in Pali. Libereally means
reliance upon sutras, the original Buddhist texts, therefore emphasized
the efficacy and authority of the sutras.
Also called Sankrantivada as it held the view that the Skandhas transmigrate from the former world
to the later world. It is one of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthaviradin developed from Sarvastivadah. Vasubandhu's arguments in the Abhidharmakosa
criticize the Vaibhasikas from a Sautrantika viewpoint. The ideas influenced
Mahayana doctrines to form Yogacara school.
- Savatthi in Pali, Sravasti in Sanskrit. The capital of the ancient
Kingdom of Kosala, where the famous
monastery (Bodhimandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.
- Or Feeling. The Sanskrit word is Vedana. One of the Five Skandhas. See Five Skandhas.
- Seven Gems
- They are gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, mother-of-pearl, red pearls
- Seven Title Classification
- Sutra titles fall into seven classes
accordingly to their reference to person, Dharma and analogy.
- Three Single
- Solely by reference to people
e.g. the Amitabha Sutra
- Solely by reference to Dharma
e.g. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra
- Solely by analogy
e.g. The Brahma Net Sutra
- Three Paired
- By reference to a person and a Dharma
e.g. The Sutra of the Questions of Manjushri
- By reference to a person and an analogy
e.g. The Sutra of the Lion's Roar of the Thus Come One
- By reference to a Dharma and an analogy.
e.g. The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra.
- By reference to person, Dharma and analogy together
e.g. The Great Universal Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra
- Sakiya in Pali and Sakya in Sanskrit. The tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged.
- Sakayamuni in Sanskrit, Shakyamuni in Pali. The founder of
Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was called Siddhartha
Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the
called Shakyamuni. The word means "capability and kindness".
- Shatika Shastra
- One of the Three Shastra of
Madhyamika School, so called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words.
It was written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and translated by Kumarajiva, but
the versions differ.
- Siddhartha in Sanskrit, Siddhattha in Pali. The given name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name means "wish fulfilled".
- Singalovada Sutra
- A short sutra about ethics and morality.
- Six Consciousness
- They are the perceptions and the discriminative ability of eye, ear, nose,
tongue, body and mind.
- Six Directions of Reincarnation
- (1) Naraka, i.e. Hell
(2) Presta, i.e. Hungry Ghost
(3) Tiryagyoni, i.e. Animal
(4) Asura, i.e. Malevolent nature spirits
(5) Manusya, i.e. Human Existence
(6) Deva, i.e. Heavenly Existence
- Six Dusts
- See Six Gunas.
- Six Entrances
- see Six Places and Six
- Six External Bases
- See Six Gunas.
- Six Fields of Senses
- See Six Gunas.
- Six Fulfilment
- The six requirements indicating that the Sutra is a true record of teachings given
directly by the Buddha. They are the fulfilment of meeting the requirement
- on belief
- on hearing
- on time
- on of the host
- on place
- on audiences
- Six Gunas
- Or Six External Bases, or Six Dusts. They are sight, sound, scent/smell,
taste, tangibles/touch and dharma/idea. They are the qualities produced by
the objects and organs of sense.
- Six Heavens of Desire
- See Three Realms.
- Six Indriyas
- Or Six Internal Bases, or Six Sense-organs, or Six Places. They are eye,
ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.
- Six Internal Bases
- See Six Indriyas.
- Six Paramita
- See Paramita.
- Six Paths
- See Six Directions of Reincarnation.
- Six Periods of Day and Night
- Six periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning,
noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn.
- Six Places
- Sanskrit word is Sadayatana. See Six Indriyas.
- Six Psychic Power
- (1) the phychic power of the heavenly eye
(2) the psychic power of the heavenly ear
(3) phychic power with regard to post lives
(4) phychic power with regard to the minds
(5) the spiritually based psychic powers
(6) the psychic power of the extinction of outflows
- Six Roots
- Or Six Sense-organs, see Six Indriyas.
- Six Sense-organs
- See Six Indriyas.
- Six States of Existence
- See Six Directions of Reincarnation.
- Sixteen Contemplations
- See Vipasyana Sukhavativyha Sutra.
- Sixteen Hearts
- There are eight hearts within the Desire Realm:
- Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering
- Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering
- Patience regarding the Dharma involving in Acculumation
- Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Acculumation
- Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
- Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
- Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Way
- Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Way
Note that the Truths of Suffering, Acculumation, Extinction and Way are the Four Noble Truths, which is the fundamental
doctrine in Buddhism, particularly Hinayana.
There are the other eight hearts within the Form Realm and the Formless Realm:
- Subsequent Patience regarding Suffering
- Subsequent Wisdom regarding Suffering
- Subsequent Patience regarding Acculumation
- Subsequent Wisdom regarding Acculumation
- Subsequent Patience regarding Extinction
- Subsequent Wisdom regarding Extinction
- Subsequent Patience regarding Way
- Subsequent Wisdom regarding Way
- Sphere of
- The highest of the four heavens in the Realm of Formlessness, or called the sphere of no-thing.
- Sphere of no-thing
- The heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of the mind in
contemplation, being four in number of which the "sphere
of neither-perception-nor-nonperception" is the highest.
- Spiritual Ghost
- Living in the Ghost Path. They are kind dwelling in the nature, e.g.
trees, mountain and sea protecting the creatures.
- Literally, it means the one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy
or lives altruistically. He is a devoted and zealous man who has taken a vow
to obey the ten commandments in Buddhist orders:
- not to kill.
- not to steal.
- not to lie or speak evil.
- not to have sexual misconduct.
- not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers.
- not to occupy high beds.
- not to sing or dance.
- not to possess wealth.
- not to eat out of regulation hours.
- not to drink wine.
- Sramenera in female gender obeying
the ten commandments of Sramanera too.
- The first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second being that of Praetyka-Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word,
means a hearer. It generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble Truth in entering Nirvana.
- A Sanskrit word means one who has entered the flow, Sota-panna in
Pali. He opposes the flow of common people's six
dusts and enters the flow of the Sage's Dharma-nature.
It is the certification of the first fruit of Arhatship, which is within the Hinayana (small vehicle). It comes when the
eighty-eight categories of delusions of view are smashed and cut off by means
of sixteen hearts. It is called a Way of
Liberation, for at that point, delusion is completely severed and liberation
is obtained. One who has certified to Srotaapanna has seven more births and
deaths to undergo. He will be born seven times in the heavens and seven times
- The bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths originated from holy
gods. They dictated the philosophical and religious thoughts in ancient
- Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah.
Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two
earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be
different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of
Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the
rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on
certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon):
In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects
From the time of Ashoka, four principal
school are regarded as prevailing:
As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects reckoned.
The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets,
though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agonostic
system to a realist philosophy.
- See Sthavirah.
- Sanskrit word means burial mound, which contains the ashes or relics of
an enlightened being. In China, it appears as pagoda, representing the place
where Buddha "lives".
- Subhadra in Sanskrit, Subhadda in Pali. A Brahman of age 120, who became Shakyamuni's
disciple shortly before Shakyamuni's death and is therefore known as the last
- See Anathapindika.
- Sudden Enlightenment
- Enlightened all of a sudden by hearing or studying Dharma, usually for those who practices Ch'an.
- Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled
over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.
- Sudra in Sanskrit, Sudda in Pali. The lowest of the four Indian Castes
at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves
- Sukhavativyuha Sutra
- It is one of the main Sutras for Pure
Land Sect. It stipulates the Forty-eight Vows of Amitabha Buddha, which give rise to the
characteristic of the Pure Land of
Ultimate Bliss in the West.
- Sanskrit words. It means wonderful high mountain. It is composed of
gold. silver, lapis lazuli and crystal, therefore it is so wonderful. It is
eighty four thousand Yugamdhara high and eighty found thousand Yugamdhara
wide, which is the greatest mountain amongst all.
- Sutra in Sanskrit, Sutta in Pali. It is a "path" necessarily passed
through in the cultivation of the Way.