Glossary
F - K

Fa Yun
Fa Yun (A.D. 467-529) was a great Dharma master of the Satyasiddhi School, also a scholar of the Nirvana School. He wrote a commentary on Lotus Sutra, which is generally accepted by Japanese Buddhism later.

First Council
Also known as 500 Council, Theravada Council", The First Compilation, etc. The assembly of 500 leading Bhikhus gathered for 3 months after the Buddha's death to compile the Buddhist sutras. It was held at Cave of the Seven Leaves near Rajagaha.

In the assembly, Ananda recited the Sutta-pitaka, Upali recited the Rules of Disciplines of the Order, i.e., Vinaya-pitaka, and Kassapa recited the Abhidhamma. Thus, the Tripitaka was adopted as a unity of doctrines and opinions within the religious order, and also an orthodox teaching for the Buddhists to follow.

Five Basic Afflications
The five fundamental conditions of the passions and delusions:
  1. wrong view, which are common to the Trailokya
  2. clinging or attachment in the Desire Realm
  3. clinging or attachment in the Form Realm
  4. clinging or attachment in the Formless Realm
  5. the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in Trailokya, which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion.

Five Bhikshus
The first five of Buddha's converts:

in Pali (P)
in Sanskrit (S)
Ajnata-Kaundinya     Ajnata-Kondanna   
Bhadrika     Bhaddiya    
Asvajit     Assagi    
Vaspa     Vappa    
Mahanaman     Mahanama    

They followed Shakyamuni to practice asceticism, but left him when he abandoned such practices. Later, when Shakyamuni attained Buddhahood, his first sermon was preached in Deer Park to these men, who became his first disciples.

Five Categories of Untranslated Terms
Chinese T"ang Dynasty Master of the Tripitaka Hsuan-Tsang established five categories of words which should be left untranslated
  1. the esoteric
  2. words having multiple meanings
  3. words for things not existing in China
  4. words not translated in accord with already established precedent
  5. words left untranslated in order to give rise to wholesomeness and respect

Five Commandments
See Five Precepts.

Five Eyes
There are five kinds of eyes or vision

  1. human eye   -   it is our flesh eye, an organ to see an object with limitation, for instance, in darkness, with obstruction.
  2. devine eye   -   it can see in darkness and in distance, attainable by men in dhyana (concentration/meditation).
  3. wisdom eye   -   the eye of Arhat and Two Vehicles i.e. the sound-hearers (Sravaka) and the Enlightened to Conditions (Praetyka-Buddha). It can see the false and empty nature of all phenomena.
  4. dharma eye   -   the eye of Bodhisattva. It can see all the dharmas in the world and beyond the world.
  5. buddha eye   -   the eye of Buddha or omniscience. It can see all that four previous eyes can see.

Five Forms of Decaying
When the devas are dying, there are five symptoms:
1. the flowers around the crown
2. the clothes being dirty
3. having unpleasant smell in the body
4. sweating in armpit
5. Being unhappy in seat

Five Messengers
They are five messengers of Manjusri:
1. Kesini
2. Upakesini
3. Citra
4. Vasumati
5. Akarsani

Five Offences
The five rebellious acts or deadly sins:
(1) parricide, i.e., killing father
(2) matricide, i.e., killing mother
(3) killing an arhat
(4) shedding the blood of a Buddha
(5) destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity.

Five Precepts
Or Five Commandments for layman
(1) No killing
(2) No stealing
(3) No sexual misconduct/adultery
(4) No lying
(5) No intoxicant

It is essential for the rebirth in human realms.

Five Skandhas
Or Five Aggregates, that is, the five components of an intelligent beings, or psychological analysis of the mind:
  1. Matter or Form (rupa) - the physical form responded to the five organs of senses, i.e., eye, ear, nose, tongue and body
  2. Sensation or Feeling (vedana) - the feeling in reception of physical things by the senses through the mind
  3. Recognition or Conception (sanjna) - the functioning of mind in distinguishing and formulating the concept
  4. Volition or Mental Formation (samskara) - habitual action, i.e., a conditioned response to the object of experience, whether it is good or evil, you like or dislike
  5. Consciousness (vijnana) - the mental faculty in regard to perception, cognition and experience

Five Vehicles
Pancayana in Sanskrit.   The Five Vehicles conveying the karma-reward which differs according to the vehicle:
  1. Human Vehicle - rebirth among human conveyed by observing the Five Commandments (Five Precepts)
  2. Deva Vehicle - among the devas by the Ten Forms of Good Actions (Ten Wholesomeness)
  3. "Sound-Hearing" Arhat - among the sravakas by the Four Noble Truths
  4. "Enlightened by Conditions" Arhat - among the pratyeka-buddhas by the Twelve Nidanas
  5. Bodhisattva - among the Bodhisattvas by the Six Paramita

Five Wisdoms
  1. Wisdom of the Embodied Nature of Dharma Realm
    - derived from amala-vijanana, i.e. pure consciousness (or mind).

  2. Wisdom of the Great Round Mirror
    - derived from alaya-vijanana, (8th consciousness) reflecting all things.

  3. Wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally
    - derived from manovijanana (7th consciousness).

  4. Wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt - destruction
    - derived from the mind consciousness (6th consciousness).

  5. Wisdom of perfecting the double work of self welfare and the welfare of others
    - derived from the five senses (1st to 5th consciousness).

Flower Adornment Sutra
One of the most important sutra in Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism. There are many volumes in the Sutra. It describes the entire Buddha Realm which is, of course, not easy to visualize. See also Avatamsaka Sutra.

Foremost Paramita
It refers to the perfect principle of Middle Way. It is neither birth nor death, without dwelling in Nirvana. It is the substance of everything beyond words and conceptual thinking.

Four Aspects (of Buddhist Dharma)
(1) the teaching
(2) the principle
(3) the practice
(4) the fruit/reward/result

Four Castes
The class system in ancient India:

  1. Brahman - the highest caste,
  2. Kshatriyas (royal families) - the warrior,
  3. Vaishyas (ordinary citizen),
  4. Sudras (slaves).

Four Fearlessness
There are four kinds of fearlessness, of which there are two groups:
  1. Buddha's fearlessness arises from
    1. his omniscience
    2. perfection of character
    3. overcoming opposition
    4. ending of suffering
  2. Bodhisattva's fearlessness arises from
    1. powers of memory
    2. power of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy
    3. power of ratiocination
    4. power of solving doubts

Four Fruition
Also called the "Four Fruits", the "Four Rewards", or the "Four Phala". These are four grades of arhatship, namely:
  1. Srota-apanna (Srota-apanna in Sanskrit, Sota-panna in Pali) : has entered the stream of holy living; the first stage of the arhat, that of a Sravaka
  2. Sakrdagamin (Sakrdagamin in Sanskrit, Sakadagamin in Pali) : comes to be born once more; the second grade of arhatship involving only one birth
  3. Anagamin: will not be reborn in this world (i.e. Six Paths), but in the Form Realm or Formless Realm, where he will attain to Nirvana
  4. Arhat: enters Nirvana. All Karma of reincarnation is destroyed. He also reaches a state of no longer learning. He is the highest Saint in Hinayana in contrast with the Bodhisattva as the Saint in Mahayana

Four Great Bodhisattva
They represent the four major characters of Bodhisattva:
  1. Manjusri - Universal Great Wisdom Bodhisattva
  2. Samantabhadra - Universal Worthy Great Conduct Bodhisattva
  3. Ksitigarbha - Earth Treasury King Great Vow Bodhisattva
  4. Avalokitesvara - Guan Shr Yin Great Compassion Bodhisattva

Four Great Elements
All matters are formed and are composed by four conditioned causes :
(1) earth, which is characterized by solidity and durability
(2) water, which is characterized by liquid/fluid and moisture
(3) fire, which is characterized by energy and warmth
(4) wind, which is characterized by gas/air movement

Four Great Vows
  1. Vow to take across the numberless living beings.
  2. Vow to cut off the endless afflictions.
  3. Vow to study the countless Dharma doors.
  4. Vow to realize the supreme Buddha Way.

Four Holy Realms
They are Sravaka, Praetyka-Buddha, Bodhisattva, and Buddha.

Four Immeasurable Minds
See Four Unlimited Minds.

Four Marks
A mark is a notion of form. In Diamond Sutra, it states that people attach to the Four Marks which hinder them from Buddhahood. Conversely, those who see all marks as no mark are Buddhas. The Four Marks are
  1. a mark of self
  2. a mark of others
  3. a mark of sentient being
  4. a mark of life

Four Noble Truths
It is the primary and fundamental doctrines of Shakyamuni
  1. Doctrine of Suffering - suffering is a necessary attribute of sentient existence (Effect of Suffering)
  2. Doctrine of Accumulation - accumulation of suffering is caused by passions (Cause of Suffering)
  3. Doctrine of Extinction - extinction of passion (Effect of Happiness)
  4. Doctrine of Path - Path leading to the extinction of passion (Cause of Happiness); i.e. Eightfold Path.
The first two are considered to be related to this life, and the last two to the life outside and beyond this world.
The Four Noble Truths were first preached to Shakyamuni's five former ascetic companions.

Four Phala
See Four Fruition.

Four Reliance (to learning Buddhist Dharma)
The four standards of Right Dharma which buddhist should rely on or abide by:
  1. to abide by the Dharma, not the person
  2. to abide by the sutras of ultimate truth, not the sutras of incomplete truth
  3. to abide by the meaning, not the word
  4. to abide by the wisdom, not the consciousness

Four Seals
They are:
  1. All phenomena are impermanent.
  2. All Dharma are not-self.
  3. The eternity is Nirvana.
  4. All sensations are suffering.

Four Sects of Hinayana
From the time of Ashoka, there were four principal schools out of the Eighteen sects of Hinayana, namely Mahasanghika, Sthavirah, Mulasarvastivadah and Sammatiyah.

Four Unlimited Mind
The mind of Bodhisattva:
1. Kindness
2. Compassion
3. Delight
4. Renunciation

Four Virtues
The four Nirvana virtues:
(1) Eternity or permanence
(2) Joy
(3) Personality
(4) Purity

These four important virtues are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental or nirvana-realm.

Four Ways (of learning Buddhist Dharma)
(1) Belief/faith
(2) Interpretation/discernment
(3) Practice/performance
(4) Verification/assurance

These are the cyclic process in learning a truth.

Fourfold Assembly
Or the Four Varga (groups) are bhiksu, bhiksuni, upasaka and upasika, i.e. monks, nuns, male and female devotees.

Fundamental Face
Also known as Fundamentally Unborn. A common term used in Chan practice.

It is actually the fundamental mind, considered to be the Buddha's Dharma Body. It is the form of the fundamental truth, so called True Suchness or Bhutaththata.

Gatha
Ancient Indian verse.

Giving
See charity.

Gokulika
See Kaukkutikah.

Good Roots
There are eleven kinds of good roots:
  1. faith
  2. shame
  3. remorse
  4. absence of greed
  5. absence of hatred
  6. absence of stupidity
  7. vigor
  8. transquility
  9. non-laxity
  10. non-harming
  11. renunciation

These are eleven good Dharmas of the fifty one Dharmas belonging to the heart.

Gotama
Gotama in Pali, Gautama in Sanskrit. The surname of the Shakya clan into which Shakyamuni was born. Another name for Shakyamuni.

Gui Ji
Gui Ji (A.D. 632-682) was a great Dharma master of the Dharmalaksana School. His writing on the Lotus Sutra was so remarkable that was generally accepted and interpreted by other great Dharma masters.

Haimavatah
One of the Hinayana School, a subdivision of Sthaviradin. It was a school of the snow mountains, a schismatic philosophical school.

Hau Tou
Intense concentration on a question-word which defies any answer and allows no answer at all. Literally, it refers to the source of word before it is uttered. It is a method used in Ch'an Sect to arouse the doubt. The practitioner meditates on questions as who is reciting the Buddha's name?. He does not rely on experience or reasoning. Sometimes, it is also known as Kung-an.

Heavenly Eye
See Devine Eye.

Hetavadinah
Another name of Sarvastivadah.

Hinayana
Also called Small Vehicle or Liberated Vehicle, which refers to Sravaka and Praetyka-Buddha. It is a school of Buddhism, popular in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, hence also known as Southern Buddhism, in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahayana, the form mainly prevalent from Nepal to Japan.

Hinayana is sometimes described as self-benefiting, and Mahayana as self-benefiting for the benefit of others. Another difference is that Pali is the general literary language in Hinayana while Sanskrit of Mahayana. See also Theravada.

Hinayana is nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha. For further details, please refer to Section 3-A A Glimpse in the Scope of Buddhism in Vol. 1 No. 4 of Buddhist Door.

Hsu Yun
A great Ch'an master in China. He died in 1959 at the age of 120.

Hsuan-tsang (600-664 A.D.)
A famous translator in Chinese Buddhism, next to Kumarajiva. He translated more scriptures than any other translators, such as: Hsuan-tsang was born into a family of scholars near Loyang ( ), but his father did not want to serve the new king, then became poor. In order to make a living, Tsuan-tsang followed the step of his elder brother to become ordained monk when he was a child.

However, when he was eleven, he was able to read the Vinalakirti Sutra, the Lotus Sutra, etc. He was brought up at Hui-jih Temple in Loyang. Later, he went to Chuang-yen Temple in Chang-an in search of better teachers, but in vain. Because of famine, Tsuan-tsang settled in Szechuan Province and continued his study in Buddhism. He kept on seeking for better teachers, but found no more outstanding scholars.

In 629, when Hsuan-tsang was around thirty, he set out to the west for travel and study. In his travels, he had recorded all his experience in India and Central Asia in details, which had important information on geography, history, politics, economics, culture of that time.

Hua-yen School
It is based on the Avatamsaka Sutra and was founded by Tu Shun in China.

Hui Neng
The Sixth Patriarch of Zen (Ch'an) Sect in China.

Ignorance
Sanskrit word is Avidya. Literally, it means darkness without illumination. Actually it refers to illusion without englightenment, i.e., the illusory phenomena for realities. Avidya is the first or the last of the Twelve Nidanas. Ignorance, karma and desire are the three forces that cause reincarnation.

Jainism
A religion founded by Nataputta, who was a royal clan of the Nata tribe in ancient India at the time of Shakyamuni. Similar to Buddhism, its basic doctrine is non-materialistic atheism.

Jataka
The sutra to narrate the birth stories of Shakyamuni in present life, past lives, and effects related to the past lives and the present lives.

Jetavaniyah
Or Jetiyasailah, school of the dwellers on Mount Jeta, which is a sub division of the Sthavirah, one of the Hinayana sect.

Also known as Caitya-vandana, who paid reverence to or worship a stupa. Caitya is a religious monument or stupa in which the relics of the Buddha or other reverend sages are placed. This sect held that the Buddha's discourse was transcendent, his enlightenment was already determined when he was born, that he could violate the natural laws, and could be reborn wherever he wished (in his previous lives as a Bodhisattva).

Jetavanna Grove
A famous monastery Bodhimandala of Shakyamuni Buddha, where he spoke of many sutras. It was located in Savatthi, the capital of savatthi. The land was bought by a wealthy merchant Anathapindika with as much gold as would cover the ground, and the houses were built by Prince Jeta for the Buddha and his followers.

Ji Zang
Ji Zang (A.D. 549-623) was a great Dharma master of Madhyamika, who wrote five books regarding the Lotus Sutra.

Jie Huan
He was a great Dharma master in Sung Dynasty. Practicing in Chan School, he used the concept of Chan to interpret the Lotus Sutra.

Jnanagupta
He translated the Lotus Sutra in A.D. 601, jointly with Dharmagupta.

Kalpa
Kalpa in Sanskrit, Kappa in Pali.   It is a fabulous period of four hundred and thirty two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of world. It is the period of time between other creation and recreation of a world or universe.

The four kalpas of formation, existence, destruction and emptiness as a complete period, is called maha kalpa or great kalpas. Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asamkhyeya-kalpas or kalpas. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara-kalpas, or small kalpas. There are different distinctions and illustrations of kalpas. In general, a small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years and a mahakalpa is 1,334,000,000 years.

Kapilavatsu
The capital of Shakya kingdom. The king of Kapilavatsu was Suddhodana, who was the father of Shakyamuni. The present-day Kapilavatsu is in Nepal.

Karma
Karman in Sanskrit, Kamma in Pali. It means action, deed, moral duty, effect. Karma is moral action which causes future retribution, and either good or evil transmigration. It is also moral kernal in each being which survive death for further rebirth.

Kashyapamatanga
Moved from India to China at about 25 A.D. Together with Dharmaraksha, they were regarded as the first translator for Buddhist sutras in China. They translated five sutras but only "Sutra of Forty-two Chapters" was extant.

Kasyapiya
One of the Hinayana sect, a subdivision of Sarvastivadah.

Kaukkutikah (Gokulika)
One of the Hinayana sect. A branch of Mahasanghikah. They held that there is no hapiness whatsoever in the world, just suffering.

King Bimblisara
The king of Magadha, one of the four great kingdoms in ancient India. He was devoted in Buddhism, and was converted to the follower of Shakyamuni Buddha. He was the one who built Bamboo Grove Park in Rajagaha, the first Bodhi mandala in Buddhism.

Koan
A Japanese term taken from the Chinese Kung-an.

Koliya
The royal clan to which the mother of Shakyamuni, Maya belonged. The kings of the Koliya and Shakya were brothers, and the families were inter-married. Indeed, Yasodhara, the wife of Shakyamuni, was also a princess of Koliya royal house.

Kosala
Kosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four great states (i.e., Kosala, Magadha, Vansa & Avanti) in ancient India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the power and influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where the famous monastery (Bodhi-mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.

Ksatriya
Ksatriya in Sanskrit, Khattiya in Pali.   The second of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni, they were the royal caste, the noble landlord, the warriors and the ruling castes.

Ksitigarbha
Earth Store Bodhisattva. He is now the guardian of the earth. Depicted with the alarum staff with its six rings, he is accredited with power over the hells and is devoted to the saving of all creatures between the Nirvana of Shakyamuni and the advent of Maitreya. He vows that while the hell is not empty, he will not attain Buddhahood. As his vow is the greatest, he is also known as The Great Vow Bodhisattva.

Kumarajiva (344-413 A.D.)
One of the most eminent translators in Chinese Buddhism. He was born in a noble family, but he went with his mother to learn Agama Sutras and other Hinayana taught him Mahayana Buddhism.

Kumarajiva was ordained as a monk at the age of twenty. He was so famous in his countries that Tao-an would like to invite him to China. His mother also encouraged Kumarajiva to preach the genuine teachings of Buddhism in China.

Eventually, Kumarajiva arrived at Chang-an ( ) and welcomed by the Emperor Yao Hsing ( ). Kumarajiva was honoured to be the National Preceptor, who was in charge of translating sutras.

Kumarajiva translated 74 scriptures in 384 fasicles in total, such as Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, the Lotus Sutra, the Amitabha Sutra, the Treatise on the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, the Treatise on the Middle, the Treatise in One Hundred Verses, the Treatises on the Twelve Gates and the Ten Vinaya. His translation work contributed both to the development of Buddhism in China, and to the establishment of various sects in Chinese Buddhism.

Before he died, he preclaimed that if his translation accorded with the genuine principles of Buddhism, his tongue would be intact and not turn to ash. After incineration of his body, the tongue was not damaged.

Kung-an
In Zen, it is a word, or a phrase, or a story couched in irrational language which cannot be solved by intellectual processes, but whose meaning must burst on the mind directly. Kung-an is used as an exercise in breaking the false thoughts, developing the deep intuition, and achieving a state of awareness.

Kushala
Sanskrit word. It means good Karma.

Kusinara
Kusinara in Pali, Kusinagara in Sanskrit.   The village where Shakyamuni died, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Malla.



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