S - S

San Sheng Ch'an master Hui Jan ( 弘忍 ) of San Sheng was the disciple of Lin Chi ( 臨濟 ) in the 9th century.

Sadaparibhuta Bodhisattva Sadaparibhuta Bodhisattva is famous for his humbleness and unselfish meekness. When he met someone, he immediately bowed and said, "I dare not slight you because you are going to be a Buddha." Being a previous incarnation of Shakyamuni Buddha, Sadaparibhuta Bodhisattva realized Buddhahood because of his practice of universal respect while walking the Bodhisattva path.

Saddharmapundarika Sutra The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra in Sanskrit. "Sad" means wonderful, and "Pundarika" means white lotus flower.

There are several translated scripts in Chinese, namely:

  1. 10 fascicles, translated by Dharmaraksha in 286 AD, called 正法華經
  2. 7 or 8 fascicles, translated by Kumarajiva in 406 AD, called 妙法蓮華經
  3. 7 or 8 fascicles, translated by Jnanagupta and Dharmagupta in 601 AD, called 添品妙法蓮華經

Sagely Wheel-turning King He is referred to a Buddha as universal spiritual king with all kinds of good marks and appearance, or a god over a universe, or a preacher of the supreme doctrine. The wheel is probably a symbol of the sun with its myraid rays.

Saha Land Also called the Saha World. It refers to the land on Earth. Saha interprets as bearing and enduring. Saha Land is contrary to Pure Land. It is a place of good and evil. A universe where all are subjected to transmigration and in which a Buddha transforms.

Sakra The full name is Sakro-devanamindra ( 釋提桓因) or simply called Indra. The ruler of the Thirty-three Heaven, considered as the deva-protector of Buddhism.

Sakrdagamin A Sanskrit word means one who returns once. It is the certification of the second fruit of Arhatship. Being a Sakrdagamin, he returns once - once to heaven and once among men before he cuts off the last three categories of his delusions in thought in the Desire Realm.

Samadhi Sanskrit word for meditation. See Meditation and Contemplation.

Samana A Pali word, Sramana in Sanskrit. One who practices austerities; an ascetic.

Samantabhadra Bodhisattva Also called Visvabhadra Bodhisattva, Universally Worthy Bodhisattva. Being one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas, he is the Bodhisattva of Great Conduct, representing the Law. He has Ten Great King Vows, which are the guidelines in practising Buddhism, and cultivating the Buddhist Way.

Samapatti Literally means seeking to enter fixity (欲入定). Samapatti is a Sanskrit word which is interpreted to mean 'contemplation and illumination' of such Dharmas as the Twelve Conditions and the Four Noble Truths.

The attainment through Samapatti is regarded as the complete Dhyana. See also Samapanna.

三摩越 / 三摩缽底
Samayabhedoparacanacakra It was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 1 fascicle.

Sambhogakaya One of the three bodies of a Buddha. It is resided in heavenly realms or pure land, and is only perceivable by Bodhisattvas and the sages. It is also called Enjoyment Body as it is created for the joy of the sages themselves, and of the other advanced practitioners.

However, in order to benefit ordinary sentient beings, it creates or transforms to physical form, which is called Nirmanakaya or Emanation Body.

Sambodhi Pali word. It refers to the insight, wisdom and assimilation of Truth essential to the attainment of the three stages of Arhatship. There are seven attributes of Sambodhi, namely, self-control, understanding of the Dharma, zeal, tranquility of mind, joy, concentration, compassion. Samma-sambodhi is the supreme spiritual insight attained by the Buddha.

Samdhinirmocana Sutra Sutra of Profound Understanding was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 5 fascicles in 647 A.D.

Other versions translated in Chinese are as follows:

  1. Sutra of the Continuous Stream of Emancipation ( 相續解脫經 ), which was the partially translated by Gunabhadra during 420-479 AD
    1. 1 fascicle named 相續解脫地羅波羅蜜了義經, and
    2. 1 fascicle named 相續解脫如來所作隨順了義經.

  2. Sutra of Profound and Mysterious Emancipation ( 深密解脫經 ), or abbreviated in Chinese as 深密經, which was translated in 5 fascicles during 508-535 AD by Bodhiruchi.

  3. Sutra on Emancipation ( 佛說解節經 ), which consists of 1 fascicle as it is the partial translation of the Sutra. It was translated by Paramartha during 557-589 AD.

Samghati A Sanskrit word which means 'many pieced robe', as it is composed of 108 pieces of cloth made in pattern of four long and one short. This robe is called 'the host’s robe' or 'the great robe'. It is the robe worn by the Dharma-speaking host.

Samhita One of four types of Vedic literature in ancient India. It consists of four sections, including poems, songs, rituals, mandra, etc.

  1. Rg-veda   梨俱吠陀   -   life & health;
  2. Sama-veda   傞馬吠陀   -   ritual & worship;
  3. Yajur-veda   夜柔吠陀   -   war study;
  4. Atharva-veda   阿闥吠陀   -   mandra & poems.

The four is know as Four Vedas.

Sammatiyah One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah. It is a school of correct measures, or correct evaluation, formed about 300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. It was classified in the Pudgalavadin category, thus often linked with Vatsiputriyah.

Samsara Sometimes written as Sansara. Sanskrit word meaning turning of the wheel or revolving. It refers to the transmigration in the Six Directions of Reincarnation, the realm of birth and death.

Samskara See Volition or Five Skandhas.

Samskrta Sanskrit word which means conditioned, phenomenal, functioning, causative, resulting from the Law of Karma, or governed by Law of Cause and Effect.

San-lun Sect San-lun ( 三論 ) is a pronunciation of the Chinese words, which means Three Shastras, or Three Treatises, so this sect is also known as Three Shastra Sect, or Three Treatise Sect. Like many other sects, the three shastras are the principal texts of this sect, from which the sect is named.

By its name, the principal texts of this sect are the Three Shastra:

  1. Madhyamika-karikas Shastra ( 中觀論 ) or simply Madhyamika Shastra ( 中論 ), or Middle Treatise, written by Nagarjuna.
  2. Dvadasanikaya Shastra ( 十二門論 ) or Twelve Gate Treatise, written by Nagarjuna.
  3. Shatashastra ( 百論 ) or One Hundred Verses Treatise, written by Aryadeva.

All three shastras were translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva. The first two were written by Nagarjuna who elaborated the meaning of emptiness in the teaching of Middle Way, the essence of the Prajna teaching of Shakyamuni Buddha. The third one was written by Aryadeva. He was the follower of Nagarjuna, who put forward all the arguments against Hinayana.

There are many other names for this sect, such as Prajna Sect ( 般若宗 ), Mahayana Emptiness Sect ( 大乘空宗 ), Nature Sect ( 性宗 ), Dharma Nature Sect ( 法性宗 ), all of which represent the basic doctrines advocated by this sect.

Sangha The Buddhist monastic order. The corporate assembly of at least 3 monks under a chairman, empowered to hear confession, grant absolution and ordain. In general terms, it refers to any community practising the Buddhist Way.

Sanghapala / Kang Seng-hui (~250 A.D.) Sanghapala / Kang Seng-hui was the eldest son of the Prime Minister of Soghdiana/Samarkand (康居國). He immigrated to China during Dong-wu Dynasty (東吳) in the Period of Disunity. He translated scriptures, including Shatparamita Sangraha Sutra, i.e. Sutra of the Collection of the Practices of the Six Perfections (六度集經) 8 fascicles between 251-280 A.D.

Sangharama It means a monastery, convent, or the park or the ground of a monastery. In Chinese, it is translated as ( 僧伽藍摩 ), and is abbreviated as ( 伽藍 ). It refers to the places where there are Dharma-protecting spirits. There are 18 guardian spirits of a monastery. In China, the most popular one is Kuan-kung ( 關公 ) or Kuan-ti ( 關帝 ), the one with the long beard and the red face.

Sanjna See Recognition or Five Skandhas.

Sankrantivada See Sautrantika.

經量部 , 說轉部
Sannagarikah One of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthavirandin, developed from Vatsiputriyah.

密林山部 , 六城都
Sanskrit Brahma letters. The classical Aryan language of ancient India, systematized by scholars. As the then learned language, the texts of Mahayana Buddhism in India were written in Sanskrit. With the exception of a few ancient translations probably from Pali versions, most of the original texts in Buddhism used in China were also Sanskrit.

Sanzen A Japanese term in Zen Buddhism, particularly used in the Rinzai house. It is an intense interview between the master and his disciple or followers about the Koan. It may take seconds or minutes daily or several times a day. It is an important Zen training program in Rinzai house. See also 'Seeshin'.

Sarchapa Sanskrit word literally means mustard seed. May be taken as analogy of a measure of short length or light weight in ancient India.

Sariputra Sariputra in Sanskrit, Sariputta in Pali.   He was born in a Brahman family near Rajagaha. At the age of 17, he mastered all Vedic doctrines. In seeking a good teacher, he studied under one of the six great non-Buddhist teachers called Sanjaya. He met Shakyamuni with the aid of Assaji, one of the Five Bhiksus. He then became one of the Ten Great Disciples of Shakyamuni, noted for his wisdom and learning. He was also the right-hand attendant on Shakyamuni. He died before Shakyamuni entered Nirvana. He figures prominently in certain sutras. He is represented as standing with Maudgalyayana by the Buddha when entering Nirvana. He is to reappear as Padmaprabha Buddha.

Sarvastiradin Vinaya The Ten-Category Vinaya, translated by Kumarajiva in 404-409 A.D. in fascicles.

Sarvastivadah One of the early Hinayana sects, said to be formed about 200-300 years after the Nirvana of Shakyamuni. A branch of the Vaibhasika claiming Rahula as founder. A school of reality of all phenomena asserting the doctrine that all things are real.

The subdivision of Sarvastivadah was complicated and doubtful. In the list of the Eighteen Sects of Hinayana, the Sarvastivadah was not taken into account to be one sect, as it split into all the remaining sects.

Also known as Hetavadinah.

Satori It is a Japanese term, equivalent to 'Wu' ( 悟 ) in Chinese, commonly used in Zen Buddhism. It describes a state of consciousness beyond the domain of discrimination and differentiation. It is regarded as the beginning and not the end of the enlightenment in Zen.

Sattva Kachaya Sanskrit word literally means the corruption of all beings. See also Evil World of Five Turbidities.

Satyasiddhi School One of the Ten Schools of Chinese Buddhism. Founded on the Satyasiddhi Shastra by Harivarman.

Satyasiddhi Shastra Also known as Treatise on the Completion of Truth. Written by Harivarman and translated by Kumarajiva during 402-412 AD, with 20 fascicles, on which the Satyasiddhi Sect bases its doctrine. It was a Hinayana variation of the Sunya (emptiness) doctrine. The term is defined as perfectly establishing the real meaning of the Sutras.

Sautrantika Sutravada in Sanskrit, Suttavada in Pali.   Libereally means reliance upon sutras, the original Buddhist texts, therefore emphasized the efficacy and authority of the sutras. Also called Sankrantivada as it held the view that the Skandhas transmigrate from the former world to the later world. It is one of the Hinayana sect, a branch of Sthaviradin developed from Sarvastivadah. Vasubandhu's arguments in the Abhidharmakosa criticize the Vaibhasikas from a Sautrantika viewpoint. The ideas influenced Mahayana doctrines to form Yogacara school.

經量部 , 說轉部
Savatthi Savatthi in Pali, Sravasti in Sanskrit.   The capital of the ancient Kingdom of Kosala, where the famous monastery (Bodhimandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.

The Second Council The Second Council was held at Vaisali about 100 years later, to uphold the original teaching and the discipline of the Sangha. This council lasted eight months. As a minority upheld the original teachings, the majority held another council. As the result of schism, there came 18 sects of the Hinayana.

Seeing Nature The Buddha's nature, our own inherent pure nature, as it manifests at the aperture of the eyes.

Seeshin A Japanese term in Zen Buddhism, particularly used in the Rinzai house. It is a period of intensive meditation in the monastery, sometimes lasting a week, during which the practitioners spend most of the time in sitting meditation with frequent visits to the Roshi (Zen master). See also 'Sanzen' and 'Zazen'.

Seng Tsan The Third Patriarch of Ch'an sect in China. He died in 606 AD.

Seng-yu (445-518 A.D.) He edited "the collection of Records concerning the Taipitaka", which is the earliest extant collection of its kind. He was the follower of Mahayana Buddhism.

Senior-seated Monk There are four kinds of Senior-seated Monks:
  1. Senior-seated monk by age ( 生年上座 ).
  2. Senior-seated monk by precepts ( 戒嚴上座 ) - he is the one who received the precepts more than twenty years ago.
  3. Senior-seated monk by blessing and virtue ( 福德上座 ) - perfect in both blessings and wisdom.
  4. Senior-seated monk by understanding of Dharma-nature ( 法性上座 ) - he understands the reality of Dharma-nature.

Sensation Or Feeling. The Sanskrit word is Vedana. One of the Five Skandhas. See Five Skandhas.

Seven Arrogances The seven arrogances or pretensions are:
  1. Superiority over inferiors and equality with the equal ( 慢 )
  2. Superiority over equals and equality with the superiors ( 過慢 )
  3. Superiority over manifest superiors ( 慢過慢 )
  4. Egotism or overwhelming pride ( 我慢 )
  5. Vaunting assertion of possessing the knowledge and the Truth ( 增上慢 )
  6. Vaunting one's inferiority or false humility ( 卑慢 )
  7. Vaunting lack of virtue for virtue ( 邪慢 )

Seven Assemblies In Buddhist community, there are seven assemblies, whose statuses are determined by the precepts that they uphold.

  1. Upasaka ( 優婆塞 ) -- The male layman Buddhists who uphold the Five Precepts, i.e.
    1. Not to kill
    2. Not to steal
    3. Not to commit adultery
    4. Not to make false speech
    5. Not to take intoxicants
  2. Upasika ( 優婆夷 ) -- The female layman Buddhists who uphold the Five Precepts.
  3. Sramanera ( 沙彌 ) -- The male ordained Buddhists at the age under 16, who uphold the Ten Precepts, i.e. in addition to the Five Precepts, the other five are:
    1. Not to use adornments of flowers nor perfumes
    2. Not to perform as an actor, juggler, acrobat, or go to watch and hear them
    3. Not to sit on elevated, broad and large bed
    4. Not to eat except in regulated hours
    5. Not to possess money, gold, silver or precious things
  4. Sramaneraika ( 沙彌尼 ) -- The female ordained Buddhists at the age of 16 and below, who uphold the Ten Precepts.
  5. Siksamana ( 式叉摩那 ) -- The female ordained Buddhist from 18 to 20 of age, who uphold the Six Precepts, i.e. The Five Precepts, plus the one that not to eat except in regulated hours.
  6. Bhiksu ( 比丘 ) -- The male ordained Buddhist, or monk who uphold the full 250 precepts.
  7. Bhiksuni ( 比丘尼 ) -- The female ordained Buddhist, or nun who uphold the full 348 ( commonly called 500 ) precepts.

Seven Gems They are gold, silver, lapis lazuli, crystal, mother-of-pearl, red pearls and carnelian.

Seven Great Elements They are earth ( 地 ), water ( 水 ), fire ( 火 ), wind ( 風 ), space (emptiness) ( 空 ), sight ( 見 ) and perception (consciousness) ( 識 ).

Seven Jewels Stapa Ratna in Sanskrit. There are varying descriptions. According to the Amitabha Sutra, they are:
  1. Gold ( 金 )
  2. Silver ( 銀 )
  3. Lapis lazuli ( 琉璃 )
  4. Crystal ( 水晶 / 玻璃 )
  5. Agate ( 硨磲 )
  6. Rubies ( 赤珠 )
  7. Cornelian ( 瑪瑙 )

Seven Rebellious Acts They refer to:
  1. Killing one's father
  2. Killing one's mother
  3. Spilling the buddha's blood
  4. Killing an Arhat
  5. Killing an Acharya
  6. Killing an Upadhaya
  7. Disrupting the harmony of the Sangha

Seven Title Classification Sutra titles fall into seven classes accordingly to their reference to person, Dharma and analogy.

  1. Three Single
    1. Solely by reference to people
      e.g. the Amitabha Sutra
    2. Solely by reference to Dharma
      e.g. the Mahaparinirvana Sutra
    3. Solely by analogy
      e.g. The Brahma Net Sutra

  2. Three Paired
    1. By reference to a person and a Dharma
      e.g. The Sutra of the Questions of Manjushri
    2. By reference to a person and an analogy
      e.g. The Sutra of the Lion's Roar of the Thus Come One
    3. By reference to a Dharma and an analogy.
      e.g. The Wonderful Dharma Lotus Flower Sutra.

  3. Three-in-one
    1. By reference to person, Dharma and analogy together
      e.g. The Great Universal Buddha Flower Adornment Sutra

Shakya Sakiya in Pali and Sakya in Sanskrit. The tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged.

Shakyamuni Sakayamuni in Sanskrit, Shakyamuni in Pali.   The founder of Buddhism. He was born as the Prince of Sakyans, and was called Siddhartha Goutama. At the age of 35, he attained the supreme Enlightenment and became the Buddha and was the called Shakyamuni. The word means "capability and kindness".

Shamatha It refers to stabilizing meditation for developing the ability to maintain focus on one meditative object, such as a Buddha. It is important as it is characterized by a one-pointedness of mind, without disturbance of laxity or excitement. It is considered to be a prerequisite for attainment of 'higher insight', i.e. Vipasyana. It is also considered as a kind of expedient device cultivated by those of the Small Vehicle. It is a kind of Samadhi, but not the ultimate one.

See also Samapatti and Dhyana.

Shanmukhi Dharma Sutra Sutra of the Dharni of the Six Gates was translated by Hsuan Tsang in 1 fascicle in 645 A.D.

Shatika Shastra Also known as Treatise of One Hundred Verses. It is one of the Three Shastra of Madhyamika School, so called because of its 100 verses, each of 32 words. It was written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu and translated by Kumarajiva in 404 AD, in 2 fascicles, but the versions differ.

Shatparamita-samgraha Sutra Also known as Sutra of the Collection of the Practices of the Six Perfections. It consists of 8 fascicles translated by Kabg Seng-hui (康僧會) during 251-280 AD. It is a story Sutra classified as Jataka, or birth stories, which tells of Shakyamuni's lives in previous incarnations.

Shen Hsiu One of the chief disciples of Hung Jen ( 弘忍 ), the fifth patriarch of Ch'an sect in China. He continued the Ch'an teachings in the northern territories, though the 'robe and bowl' was officially transferred to Hui Neng ( 慧能 ), the Sixth Patriarch of Ch'an who propagated the Ch'an teaching in the southern territories. The northern transmission is regarded as the 'gradual' teaching of Ch'an, while the southern one is the 'sudden' one.

Shen Tsan Dharma-successor of Pai Chang ( 百丈 ).

Shih Shih A Ch'an master Shan Tao ( 善道 ) of Shih Shih in the 9th century.

Shih Shuang Ch'an master Hsing Kung ( 性空 ) of Shih Shuang was the disciple of Pai Chang ( 百丈 ) in the 9th century.

Shih Tou Ch'an master Hsi Chien (希遷) of Shih Tou Peak, Dharma-successor of Hsing Szu (行思) of Ching Yuan (青原), and the master of Yo Shan (藥山) and Tao Wu (道悟). He was an outstanding Ch'an master, author of the early classic 'Tsan Tung Chi' or 'Integration of Differentiation and Unity'. Shih Tou and Ma Tsu were considered the greatest teachers of their time, and many of their students studied with both of them. He died in 791 AD when he was 91.

An Shih-kao A Kushan monk who arrived at Lo-yang in China in 148 AD and established the first translation bureau. He and his followers translated about 30 Buddhist scriptures in 30 years, mainly on meditation, theory and practice.

Shikshananda (652-710 A.D.) Shikshananda went to China from Udyana (于闐國), and was invited to translate his specialized Avatamsaka Sutra. Like Kumarajiva, his tongue was intact and did not turn to ash after the incineration of his body. This indicated his accuracy and correctness in translating sutras. He translated 19 sutras in 107 fascicles, including:

實叉難陀 / 喜學
Shin A Japanese term to mean mind or heart, generally used in Zen Buddhism. It is also known as Kokoro in Japanese.

Shramana Shramana is Sanskrit; it means 'diligent and putting to rest' ( 勤息 ). He is diligent to cultivate the precepts, meditation and wisdom, and putting greed, hatred and stupidity to rest. Thus, the Buddha is also called Shramana.

There are four kinds of Shramanas:

  1. A Shramana victorious in the Way ( 勝道沙門 ). He has cultivated and accomplished either Arhatship or Bodhisattvahood.
  2. A Shramana who speaks of the Way ( 說道沙門 ). He propagates the Dharma for the benefit of living beings.
  3. A Shramana who lives the Way ( 活道沙門 ). He maintains the precepts with purity and great vigor, and is careful that never breaks them.
  4. A Shramana who defiles the Way ( 污道沙門 ). He does not eat pure food and he breaks the precepts; he makes a bad example to others, who may lose faith, thus he is said to defile the Buddha's teaching.

See also 'Sramana'.

Shu Shan Ch'an master Kuang Jen ( 光仁 ) of Shu Shan Mountain was the disciple of Tung Shan ( 洞山 ) in the 9th century.

Shuang Feng Ch'an master Shuang Feng of Fu Chou ( 福州 ) was the disciple of Kuei Shan (溈山 ) in the 9th century.

Shurangama It is a Sanskrit word which means 'the ultimate durability of all phenomena' ( 一切事究竟堅固 ). It refers to the fact that all phenomena can be fathomed to the very depths of durability to obtain the basic substance of Samadhi, so Shurangma can be simply regarded as Samadhi.

Shurangama-samadhi Sutra It was translated by Kumarajiva in 2 fascicles.

Siddhartha Siddhartha in Sanskrit, Siddhattha in Pali.   The given name of Shakyamuni when he was born to the Prince Suddhodana. The name means "wish fulfilled".

Sila Precept is written as Sila ( 尸羅 ) in Sanskrit, which means 'cool'. It reflects the fact that our bad karma is main cause of sufferings and affliction, just like the hot fire burning in our mind. Sila is the prescription to calm and cool it down.

Singalovada Sutra A short sutra about ethics and morality.

Single Conduct Samadhi As stated in the Platform Sutra, it is a constant practice of maintaining a direct, straightforward mind in all places, whether one is sitting, standing, walking or lying down. The straight mind is the Bodhimandala (i.e. Dharma Place). The straight mind is the Pure Land.

Six Consciousness They are the perceptions and the discriminative ability of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

Six Days of Pure Eating The six days are 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th and 30th day of the lunar month. In case of short months, the last two become 28th and 29th day of the lunar months. It is said that the gods will come and check on the realm of living beings, and see whether everyone is doing well.

Six Directions of Reincarnation (1) Naraka, i.e. Hell
(2) Presta, i.e. Hungry Ghost
(3) Tiryagyoni, i.e. Animal
(4) Asura, i.e. Malevolent nature spirits
(5) Manusya, i.e. Human Existence
(6) Deva, i.e. Heavenly Existence

Six Dusts See Six Gunas.

Six Entrances see Six Places and Six Indriyas.

Six External Bases See Six Gunas.

Six Fields of Senses See Six Gunas.

Six Fulfilment The six requirements indicating that the Sutra is a true record of teachings given directly by the Buddha. They are the fulfilment of meeting the requirement
  1. on belief
  2. on hearing
  3. on time
  4. on of the host
  5. on place
  6. on audiences

Six Gunas Or Six External Bases, or Six Dusts. They are sight, sound, scent/smell, taste, tangibles/touch and dharma/idea. They are the qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense.

Six Heavens of Desire Devaloka in Sanskrit.

The happy states in the Realm of Sensuous Desire. They are,

  1. Heaven of the Four Heavenly King (or Four Deva Kings) i.e. Caturmaharajas in Sanskrit, Catumaharsjika in Pali who dwell on the four sides of Mount Sumeru 四天王天
  2. Heaven of the Thirty-three, i.e. Trayastrimsas in Sanskrit, Tavstimsa in Pali, which is located at the summit of Mount Sumeru 三十三天 / 忉利天
  3. Heaven that Destroys Pain, i.e. Suyama in Sanskrit, Yams in Pali where the times or seasons are always good 夜摩天
  4. Heaven of Sweet Delight, i.e. Tusita in Sanskrit, Tusita in Pali 兜率天
  5. Heaven of Transformation of Bliss, i.e. Nirmanarati in Sanskrit, Nimmanasti in Pali 樂化天
  6. Heaven of Comfort Gained through Transformation of Other's Bliss, i.e. Paranirmita-vasavartin in Sanskrit, Paranimmits-vasavatti in Pali 他化自在天

The first two heavens dwell on the land (地居天) of Mount Sumeru, while the other four dwell on the empty sky/universe (空居天). Although those who dwell there are among the gods, they still have impure thoughts of sexual desire. In the Heaven of the Four Kings and the Trayastrimsa Heaven, sexual affairs are carried out in the same manner as they are among people, but a newborn child in the Heaven of the Four Kings is as large as a five-year-old human child. In the Trayastrimsa Heaven an infant is as large as a seven-year-old human child, and in the Suyama Heaven the newborn are as large as human children of ten.

The desire of those in the Heaven of the Four Kings and the Trayastrimsa Heaven is like our own; but in the Suyama Heaven, husbands and wives prefer to cultivate the Way and only infrequently hold hands. In the Tusita Heaven, marital affairs are carried out by laughing. Although most people consider laughter good, it is actually a function of emotional gratification. In the Transformation of Bliss Heaven, the gods merely gaze at one another to achieve their gratification, and in the Heaven of the Comfort Gained through Transformation of Others' Bliss, a glance is enough to perform the marital act. As one ascends through the Six Desire Heavens, emotional desire decreases. If desire is not light, there can be no ascension to these heavens. If desire is heavy, stupidity results; as desire is lightened, wisdom grows.

Six Indriyas Or Six Internal Bases, or Six Sense-organs, or Six Places. They are eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind.

Six Internal Bases See Six Indriyas.

Six Kinds of Earthquakes They are quaking ( 動 ), erupting ( 湧 ), heaving up ( 起 ), cracking ( 震 ), roaring ( 吼 ) and striking ( 擊 ). The first three involve movement, and the last three involve sound. They occur for several reasons: when someone in the world becomes a Buddha, when someone becomes enlightened, and when a demon king wishes to disturb the minds of people in the world.

Six Objective Fields They are: Sight, Sound, Smell, Taste, Touch and Idea. Also see Six Dust.

Six Paramita See Paramita.

Six Parts of a Human Body The human body is composed of six elements:
  1. fire (or body temperature)
  2. air (or breath)
  3. earth (or body)
  4. space (or emptiness)
  5. mind (or impermanence)
  6. water (or liquid such as saliva, blood, sweat, tears, urines, etc.)

Six Paths See Six Directions of Reincarnation.

Six Periods of Day and Night Six periods in a day, three for day and three for night, i.e. morning, noon, evening, night, midnight, dawn.

Six Places Sanskrit word is Sadayatana. See Six Indriyas.

Six Psychic Power (1) the phychic power of the heavenly eye
(2) the psychic power of the heavenly ear
(3) phychic power with regard to post lives
(4) phychic power with regard to the minds
(5) the spiritually based psychic powers
(6) the psychic power of the extinction of outflows

Six Realizations All Sutras that Shakyamuni Buddha spoke begin with Six Realizations, or Six Fulfillments. They are:
  1. The Realization of Faith ( 信成就 )
  2. The Realization of Hearing ( 聞成就 )
  3. The Realization of Time ( 時成就 )
  4. The Realization of Host - one speaks the Dharma ( 主成就 )
  5. The Realization of Place ( 處成就 )
  6. The Realization of Audiences ( 眾成就 )

See also 'Six Fulfillment'.

Six Roots Or Six Sense-organs, see Six Indriyas.

Six Sense-organs See Six Indriyas.

Six States of Existence See Six Directions of Reincarnation.

Six Sutras and Eleven Shastras There are six Sutras and eleven Shastras (treatises) in Fa-hsiang sect, though some of them are not extant in China.

The six sutras are:

  1. The Avatamsaka Sutra / Flower Adornment Sutra ( 華嚴經 )
  2. Sandhinirmocana Sutra / Sutra on the Explanation on Profound and Secret Meaning ( 解深密經 )
  3. Lankavatara Sutra ( 楞伽經 )
  4. Tathagata Emerging Meritorious Virtue Adornment Sutra ( 如來出現功德莊嚴經 )
  5. Abhidharma Sutra ( 阿毗達磨經 )
  6. Hou-yen Sutra ( 厚嚴經 )

The eleven treatises are:

  1. Yogacara-blumi Shastra ( 瑜伽師地論 )
  2. Shastra on Twenty Stanzas of Mere Consciousness / Vimisatika-karika ( 二十唯識論 )
  3. Mahayana Samparigraha ( 攝大乘論 )
  4. Shastra on Mahayana Adornment Sutra ( 大乘莊嚴經論 )
  5. Shastra on Conditions of the Contemplation of the Conditioned ( 觀所緣緣論 )
  6. Shastra on Dasabhumika Sutra ( 十地經論 )
  7. Shastra on Abhidharmas ( 阿毗達磨雜集論 )
  8. Shastra on Propagation of Sagely Teachings ( 顯揚聖教論 )
  9. Shastra on Discriminative Yogacara ( 分別瑜伽論 )
  10. Shastra on Determination of Mean and Extremes ( 辨中邊論 )
  11. Ji-liang Shastra ( 集量論 )

Sixfold Remembrance Six Thoughts that has to be dwelled upon, namely, the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha Order, the Precepts, Almsgiving and the heavenly joy.

Sixteen Contemplations Sutra See Vipasyana Sukhavativyha Sutra.

Sixteen Hearts There are eight hearts within the Desire Realm:
  1. Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering
  2. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Suffering
  3. Patience regarding the Dharma involving in Acculumation
  4. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Acculumation
  5. Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
  6. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Extinction
  7. Patience regarding the Dharma involved in Way
  8. Wisdom regarding the Dharma involved in Way

Note that the Truths of Suffering, Acculumation, Extinction and Way are the Four Noble Truths, which is the fundamental doctrine in Buddhism, particularly Hinayana.

There are the other eight hearts within the Form Realm and the Formless Realm:

  1. Subsequent Patience regarding Suffering
  2. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Suffering
  3. Subsequent Patience regarding Acculumation
  4. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Acculumation
  5. Subsequent Patience regarding Extinction
  6. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Extinction
  7. Subsequent Patience regarding Way
  8. Subsequent Wisdom regarding Way

The Sixth Council The last council held at Madras in 1891. It was inaugurated by Colonel Olcott, in order to establish a statement of fundamental doctrine on which all sects were agreed. The famous 'Fourteen Fundamental Propositions' were drawn up and were accepted by the representatives of both Hinayana and Mahayana schools.

Small Arhat A person who has attained the first fruit of enlightenment is called Small Arhat. See 'Four Fruition' and 'Great Arhats'.

Soto A Japanese term translated from Tsao Tung ( 曹洞 ) in Chinese. Tsao Tung is one of the Five Houses of Ch'an Buddhism in China. It was founded by the two great masters Tsao Shan and Tung Shan, and transmitted to Japan by Dogen in 1127.

Soul A term usually avoided by Buddhists, as it may lead to the misconception that there is an immortal unchanging entity created by God. In Buddhism, 'soul' is the character created by the experience in the phenomenal worlds, and there is no independent real 'self' or 'soul' whatsoever.

The Southern Sect and the Northern Sect Ch'an School was divided into the Southern Sect and the Northern Sect after the Fifth Patriarch Master Hung Jen (弘忍). The former was under Hui Neng (惠能), who officially received the 'robe and bowl' from Master Hung Jen, while the latter was under another great master Shen Hsiu (神秀). Sometimes, it is called 'Southern Immediate' or 'Southern Sudden' and Northern Gradual' (南頓北漸), which refers to the difference in the method of enlightenment between the two sects.

Sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception The highest of the four heavens in the Realm of Formlessness, or called the sphere of no-thing.

Sphere of no-thing The heavens without form, immaterial, consisting only of the mind in contemplation, being four in number of which the "sphere of neither-perception-nor-nonperception" is the highest.

Spiritual Ghost Living in the Ghost Path. They are kind dwelling in the nature, e.g. trees, mountain and sea protecting the creatures.

Sramanera Literally, it means the one who ceases from evil and does works of mercy or lives altruistically. He is a devoted and zealous man who has taken a vow to obey the ten commandments in Buddhist orders:

  1. not to kill.
  2. not to steal.
  3. not to lie or speak evil.
  4. not to have sexual misconduct.
  5. not to use perfumes or decorate oneself with flowers.
  6. not to occupy high beds.
  7. not to sing or dance.
  8. not to possess wealth.
  9. not to eat out of regulation hours.
  10. not to drink wine.

Sramaneraka Sramenera in female gender obeying the ten commandments of Sramanera too.

Sravaka The first or initial stage in Hinayana, the second being that of Praetyka-Buddha. Sravaka, a Sanskrit word, means a hearer. It generally relates to Hinayana disciple who understands the Four Noble Truth in entering Nirvana.

Srotaapanna A Sanskrit word means one who has entered the flow, Sota-panna in Pali. He opposes the flow of common people's six dusts and enters the flow of the Sage's Dharma-nature.

It is the certification of the first fruit of Arhatship, which is within the Hinayana (small vehicle). It comes when the eighty-eight categories of delusions of view are smashed and cut off by means of sixteen hearts. It is called a Way of Liberation, for at that point, delusion is completely severed and liberation is obtained. One who has certified to Srotaapanna has seven more births and deaths to undergo. He will be born seven times in the heavens and seven times among men.

Sruti The bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths originated from holy gods. They dictated the philosophical and religious thoughts in ancient India.

Stapa Buddha Stapa is a Sanskrit word for 'seven'. The seven Buddhas are generally regarded as the ancient Buddhas ( 古佛 ),amongst which Shakyamuni is the last one. They are:
  1. Vipasyin ( 毘婆尸佛 )
  2. Sikhin or Ratnasikhin ( 尸棄佛 / 刺那尸棄佛 )
  3. Visvabhu ( 毗舍婆佛 )
  4. Krakucchanda ( 拘樓孫佛 )
  5. Kanakamuni ( 拘那含佛 )
  6. Kasyapa ( 迦葉佛 )
  7. Shakyamuni ( 釋迦佛 )

The last four are said to be of the present Kalpa.

Stapa Tathagatha Stapa is a Sanskrit word for 'seven'. The seven Tathagathas are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar in some Buddhist temples. They are:
  1. Amitbha ( 阿彌陀如來 ) - Infinite Light Tathagata
  2. Ratnasambhava ( 寶勝如來 ) - Treasure Victory Tathagata
  3. Prabhutaratna ( 多寶如來 ) - Many Jewels Tathagata
  4. Kan-lu-wang ( 甘露王如來 ) - Sweet Dew King Tathagata
  5. Surukaya ( 妙色身如來 ) - Wonderfully Colored Body Tathagata
  6. Gwang-bwo-shen ( 廣博身如來 ) - Extensive Body Tathagata
  7. Li-bu-wei ( 離怖畏如來 ) - Apart From Fear Tathagata

These Tathagatas can cause the living beings to leave the sufferings of the three evil paths and of the eight difficulties, so that the living beings will always be pure disciples of the Buddha.

Sthavirah Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah.   Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon):

  1. Mahaviharavasinah
  2. Jetavaniyah
  3. Abhayagiri-vasinah

In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects were developed.

From the time of Ashoka, four principal school are regarded as prevailing:

  1. Mahasanghika
  2. Sthavira
  3. Mulasarvastivada
  4. Sammatiyah

As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects reckoned.

The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agonostic system to a realist philosophy.

Sthaviranikaya See Sthavirah.

Stupa Sanskrit word means burial mound, which contains the ashes or relics of an enlightened being. In China, it appears as pagoda, representing the place where Buddha "lives".

Subhadra Subhadra in Sanskrit, Subhadda in Pali.   A Brahman of age 120, who became Shakyamuni's disciple shortly before Shakyamuni's death and is therefore known as the last disciple.

Sudatta See Anathapindika.

Sudbhakarasimha (637-735 A.D.) Sudbhakarasimha succeeded to be the King at the age of 13, but retreated to become a monk. He practiced mantras and got much mystic experience, and eventually moved from Central India to Chang-an, China.

He translated for 19 years, mainly the sutras for the Tantric School, such as:

輸波迦羅 / 善無畏
Sudden Enlightenment Enlightened all of a sudden by hearing or studying Dharma, usually for those who practices Ch'an.

Suddhodana Pure Rice Prince, the father of Shakyamuni, ruled over the Sakyans at Kapilaratthu on the Nepalese border.

Sudra Sudra in Sanskrit, Sudda in Pali. The lowest of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were peasants, slaves and serfs.

Sukhavativyuha Sutra Also known as Sutra of Infinite Life. It is one of the main Sutras for Pure Land Sect. It stipulates the Forty-eight Vows of Amitabha Buddha, which give rise to the characteristic of the Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss in the West.

It consists of 2 fascicles translated in Chinese by Samghavarman in 252 AD. It is known as Larger Sukhavativyuha Sutra, as compared to the one translated by Kumarajiva. See also Amitabha Sutra.

Sumeru Sanskrit words. It means wonderful high mountain. It is composed of gold. silver, lapis lazuli and crystal, therefore it is so wonderful. It is eighty four thousand Yugamdhara high and eighty found thousand Yugamdhara wide, which is the greatest mountain amongst all.

Sutra Sutra in Sanskrit, Sutta in Pali.   It is a "path" necessarily passed through in the cultivation of the Way.

Sutra of Forty-two Chapters It is regarded as the first Buddhist Sutra translated in Chinese. Traditionally, it is said to be translated by Kashyapamatanga and Dharmaraksha in 67 AD. The Sutra is compiled with some extracts from various Sutras. It consists of basic Buddhist teachings, particularly the moral ones, in order to be assimilated more easily in China.

Suyama Heaven The Suyama, "well-divided time," is a heaven located so high on the side of Mount Sumeru that the light of the sun and moon cannot reach it. It is light there, however, because the gods all emit light. Because there is no light from the sun or moon, time is measured by the opening and closing of the lotus flower; when the lotus is open, it is day, and when it closes, night has arrived. The inhabitants of this heaven are two Yojanas tall and live for two thousand years.

Svabhavah Sanskrit word literally means self-existent nature. It is the original nature of beings. See also Purucha.

Svastika Sanskrit word literally means accumulation of innumerable virtues in one auspicious sign. It is a sign stamped on Buddha's chest (卍) and is regarded as a mystic diagram. It is also symbol of esoteric Buddhism.

Sweet Dew Also called the Medicine of Immortality. It can banish hunger and thirst, cure illness, bestow auspiciousness and confer many other benefits.


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